BNC Text G4V

First-year undergraduate tutorial. Sample containing about 6865 words speech recorded in educational context

6 speakers recorded by respondent number C199

PS26M Ag1 m (Dave, age 23, tutor) unspecified
PS26N Ag1 f (sally-ann, age 18, student) unspecified
PS26P Ag1 f (Marilyn, age 18, student) unspecified
PS26R Ag1 m (Chris, age 18, student) unspecified
G4VPSUNK (respondent W0000) X u (Unknown speaker, age unknown) other
G4VPSUGP (respondent W000M) X u (Group of unknown speakers, age unknown) other

1 recordings

  1. Tape 096401 recorded on unknown date. LocationYorkshire: York University () Activity: Tutorial lesson

Undivided text

Unknown speaker (G4VPSUNK) [1] What's that?
[2] That's all right it's what [...]
Marilyn (PS26P) [3] Bit scary isn't it? [laugh]
Dave (PS26M) [4] Okay so has anybody had a chance to look at some of the things er
sally-ann (PS26N) [...]
Chris (PS26R) [...]
Dave (PS26M) [5] Okay so if you want to talk about ... what you've got.
[6] Was it you two who were gonna go Scott and Rebecca who were gonna do the talk.
[7] Hang on you can
Unknown speaker (G4VPSUNK) [...]
Dave (PS26M) [8] You can
Unknown speaker (G4VPSUNK) [9] I can get [...]
Unknown speaker (G4VPSUNK) [10] chip in
sally-ann (PS26N) [11] Chip in.
Unknown speaker (G4VPSUNK) [laugh]
Dave (PS26M) [12] You [...] all the responses and things like that.
Chris (PS26R) [13] Say [...] I agree with that.
Unknown speaker (G4VPSUNK) [...]
Dave (PS26M) [14] And I'll keep quiet and [...] all to myself.
[15] Okay ... go for it.
sally-ann (PS26N) [16] Are we still doing anything about [...] I've got to [...] I've got some inf information about [...] .
Dave (PS26M) [17] Yeah.
sally-ann (PS26N) [18] First.
Unknown speaker (G4VPSUNK) [...]
sally-ann (PS26N) [19] I've got this [...] Yeah yeah look [...]
Marilyn (PS26P) [...]
sally-ann (PS26N) [20] Ah no we haven't discussed it yet.
Marilyn (PS26P) [21] [laugh] Oh superb.
Dave (PS26M) [22] We'll discuss that after you've took a look at [...]
Marilyn (PS26P) [23] When's your interview?
[24] Next week?
sally-ann (PS26N) [25] Er It's it's supposed to be due in Friday week three
Marilyn (PS26P) [laugh]
sally-ann (PS26N) [26] But ... I think sometime during week four. [...]
Unknown speaker (G4VPSUNK) [27] Oh that's good, thank you.
Unknown speaker (G4VPSUNK) [...]
sally-ann (PS26N) [28] Yeah.
Dave (PS26M) [29] Right so the thing is if we talk about what you've read and then ... The idea is that if there's anything out of you've read that's given you an idea for an essay then you can do that.
Marilyn (PS26P) [30] [laughing] thank you []
Dave (PS26M) [31] And if not we can think of something more specific afterwards.
[32] But we'll go through what you've read first and then try to work something.
sally-ann (PS26N) [33] [...] [cough] a definition sort of [...]
Unknown speaker (G4VPSUNK) [...]
sally-ann (PS26N) [34] Says it [...] ready to make stereotype judgements about personality, E G you can tell he's anxious by his voice is in inverted commas or she sounds very strong minded.
[35] And this type of stereotypical link has led to various experiments.
[36] At the first experiment of er I think of this kind it was er in nineteen sixty.
[37] Who had done it already despite the English, French Canadians and how they felt about each other.
[38] And er they felt had little prestige and that the French peop The French Canadian speakers had little prestige in their own language.
[39] But er e English er guises were favoured more than the French ones even by the French themselves.
[40] And er o despite that sort of [...] just said something about the
Unknown speaker (G4VPSUNK) [cough]
sally-ann (PS26N) [41] procedure but we'd already done that.
[42] So [...]
Unknown speaker (G4VPSUNK) [cough]
sally-ann (PS26N) [43] there wasn't really There wasn't really a great deal of er sort of stuff here but it was more about sort of language [...] and shifts so I had to like ... shift through it and find the bits
Dave (PS26M) [44] Right.
sally-ann (PS26N) [45] that were more er.
[46] Well these sort of languages often considered to be the central pillar to group attachment and er official agencies like government an and things like historically support group language purity.
[47] And er a although we usually associate language identity with minority groups, linked with minority groups er it's quite important that we don't erm dismiss the prominence it has in majority groups as well.
[48] And it quotes [...] Quote from nineteen eighty four.
[49] Who says that the best predictor of future social behaviour is ... is past social behaviour all things being equal and er as any assessment of linguistic of a linguistic scene will profit ... from an historical awareness.
Unknown speaker (G4VPSUNK) [...]
sally-ann (PS26N) [50] [yawning] [...] [] Anyway er.
[51] Oh yeah, that's right.
[52] It says he believed that the historical awareness will help any linguistic scene to profit.
[53] An analysis of what people have done is likely to be useful not only in ascertaining what they're likely to do but also what their linguistic needs are.
[54] [...] he's just saying that ... in a group if we look at the historical background of the language, it helps to see you know how What the strong points are of the linguistic and what we need ... to be bolstered on.
[55] ... [...] Er if we're to understand the dynamics of language in our density and how it exists in the minds of ordinary speakers we must consider the real life record.
[56] So he looks at Island and America.
[57] He looks at Island er and the Irish language and in America he looks at immigrant e adaptation and the value of the historical record in each.
[58] Erm he also states that the erosion of language does not mean the erosion of an identity.
[59] And essentially identity revolves around the idea of political boundaries and groups.
[60] And language and identity is not indis er indissoluble link.
[61] So if you know language and identity need not be together cos identity is er essentially political as opposed to linguistic.
[62] But is common that they both are together in that way.
[63] Er Right he says on the subject of attachment of identity and language and why and why not language is maintained, he cites Harris and [...] and the Yiddish and ... Na-dene speakers.
[64] Vis-a-vis Hebrew.
[65] Yiddish yiddish served as a lingua franca for [laugh] [...] Jews.
[66] And Na-dene did for the [...] Jews.
[67] When the sates of Hebrew heightened thus becoming the language of Israel, Yiddish and Na-dene became somewhat redundant ... and er in his survey of America [laugh]
Unknown speaker (G4VPSUNK) [laugh] [...]
sally-ann (PS26N) [68] [laughing] In his study of Amer [] In his study of m the U S he found that seventy five percent of the s people who spoke Na-dene, couldn't give a reason er a proper reason for passing their language on to the er children.
[69] Because i i they though it was in competition with other varieties around and it something t It wasn't necessarily to do with the fact that erm they though it was less it held less prestige in the ... community.
[70] It was just that erm the other varieties around were competing too heavily against it so they thought what's the point of passing it on to the children.
[71] And er ... let's think ... That's it on that.
[72] I think.
[73] Cos there wasn't really much
Dave (PS26M) [74] Okay.
sally-ann (PS26N) [75] on it.
Unknown speaker (G4VPSUNK) [...]
sally-ann (PS26N) [76] I did the Maastricht one well as which is [...] a bit more to do.
[77] The Maastricht you know
Dave (PS26M) [78] Yeah tell us a bit about it cos [...]
sally-ann (PS26N) [79] Okay [...] this was a bit better this.
[80] ... Right the situation in Maastricht up till the nineteenth century was that It was described as a di- or tri-glossic erm linguistic community.
[81] With French and standard Dutch as competing high varieties and the dialect of Maastricht as a common variety.
[82] Which is like the third of the tri-glossic
Unknown speaker (G4VPSUNK) [83] What was it German and French?
sally-ann (PS26N) [84] No French and standard Dutch.
Unknown speaker (G4VPSUNK) [...]
sally-ann (PS26N) [85] And Maastricht was the common variety.
[86] And er the dialect today whenever this experiments was ... [...] which year it was but it said today.
[87] The dialect is still very unlike Dutch itself ... on levels of phonology, morphology and lexis itself.
[88] You know it doesn't It doesn't like look too much like [...] the standard Dutch.
[89] And and a funny thing is, it's not limited to social class ... within Holland itself.
[90] I it seems to be functional, so you know you get like lawyers and farmers and all sorts of people using it.
[91] So it's a the tests it was a match-guising experiment and the tests er tested sixty four people ... who were aged the ages were fifty five plus, thirty to forty five and fifteen to twenty.
[92] They were sort of equally distributed in those ages.
[93] And er process was er match-guising so it was You know they were list They listened to three different people ... well th th they thought it was three people it was one person doing three ac the three accents ... er dialects sorry.
[94] And er it was the process was analyzed on a list of personal tracks.
[95] And er [whispering] Oh there was one other thing [] .
[96] The match-guising results were interesting because instead of the typical prestige of the standard language, and the attractiveness of a dia You know a If you did R P and say er Cockney, you'd probably get people saying that their R P was prestigious but the cockney was sort of more you know y more friendly and more attractive accent.
[97] Er it was found that the status items were about the same for both.
[98] So there wasn't a great difference bet The status items of things like honesty and er leadership and stuff like that.
[99] The items weren't greatly different on scores between they had a little graph [...] .
[100] But st standard Dutch won on leadership but the other status items shows sort of scores that were very close to each other and they're not significantly different.
[101] That was it [...] .
Dave (PS26M) [102] Okay that's [...] .
[103] Okay what have you
Marilyn (PS26P) [104] Got a bit from [...] Erm the match-guise erm [...] it helps to show the stage in attitudes.
[105] How they were [...] towards peoples of other languages or language varieties.
[106] Erm you know it just says about how they carry it out about subjects assumes that er the samples.
[107] And and judgements are made on intelligence, personality and suitability and particular occupations and although they're only limited speech samples erm many subjects [...] judge them.
[108] ... Erm
Chris (PS26R) [109] Sorry what were the erm things that related to personality?
Marilyn (PS26P) [110] Intelligence and suitability and particular occupations.
[111] ... And then it was saying about quantitative and qualitative measures.
sally-ann (PS26N) [...]
Unknown speaker (G4VPSUNK) [...]
Marilyn (PS26P) [112] Quantitative measures may allow a discovery of pattern in the situations which might otherwise merely be seen as random variation.
Dave (PS26M) [...]
Unknown speaker (G4VPSUNK) [...]
Dave (PS26M) [113] Not really talking about the issues, just
Dave (PS26M) [114] Yeah I mean if you're looking at quantitative things it's really you know how much actual How much variation happens whereas qualitative is ... you know what the actual variations
Unknown speaker (G4VPSUNK) [115] entails
Dave (PS26M) [116] entails.
[117] you know what the actual quality of the variations are.
Marilyn (PS26P) [118] Okay.
[119] Erm.
[120] ... Judging occupational suitability presumes a hierarchy and what this is must be determined erm differently for every culture being investigated.
[121] And second one is a book by
Unknown speaker (G4VPSUNK) [122] Beardsmoor and he [...] sheep says about [laughing] the Canadian soc social [] psychologist
Unknown speaker (G4VPSUNK) [laugh]
Marilyn (PS26P) [123] W E Lambert who was the one that [...] match-guise technique erm and basically he's just kind of saying about the technique that it shows corre correlations between the degree of bilingual ability and attitudinal dispositions.
[124] Erm ... and it's sort of erm features that are expressed er like [...] intelligent and then [...] intelligent er ... it reveals to what extent subjects perceive speakers in a particular language as having desirable or undesirable traits ... with which they may or may not wish to identify.
[125] Erm and this technique can trigger comunic communally shared stereotyped images of a linguistic community and reveal the degree of tolerance ... erm for the different erm languages.
[126] And then the other one is the one that I got from the library by Luhmann.
[127] Erm that's a b bit too But it's it's about ... Appalachian English? [...]
Dave (PS26M) [128] Appalachian.
Marilyn (PS26P) [129] Okay. [laugh]
Unknown speaker (G4VPSUNK) [laugh]
Marilyn (PS26P) [130] [laughing] Appalachian then. []
[131] Erm
Chris (PS26R) [132] Who's this book by?
Marilyn (PS26P) [133] Luhmann L U H M A double N.
[134] ... Appalachian English is one of the surviving non-standard regional dialects of English in the United States and it's associated with the residents of the Appalachian mountain range.
[135] Erm it's a community isolation because is like mountains around which makes barriers against physical mobility that can't really be moved round that easily.
[136] Erm so they just kind of stay put and so the dialects thrive because it's just such a physical It's in physical and social isolation.
[137] Erm and then it's talking about standard variety that it's usually the standard variety that's accepted as the proper one when compared to other like smaller varieties erm dialects and stuff.
[138] The low status dialects are associated with neg negative prestige.
[139] Erm ... Appalachian English differs from standard American English in grammar, phonology, lexicon and intonation.
[140] Erm and then just generally language is far more than just a means of communication.
[141] It symbolizes our social experience and locates us with social groups from which we draw our identities.
[142] ... Erm and none standard language varieties are associated with those social status groups erm they acquire status evaluation, their speakers.
[143] ... Erm the speakers on the samples are either bilingual or bi-dialectal and ... erm ... the dialects listed are in between standard American English and the eastern Kentucky sub-dialect of Appalachian English. [...]
Unknown speaker (G4VPSUNK) [laugh]
Marilyn (PS26P) [144] There's four bi-dialectal speakers two males and two females, erm who are also actors and native speakers natives of Kentucky erm ... And then it g And then it goes into the the different [...] factors of Appalachian English.
[145] but we don't really need to go into that do we?
Dave (PS26M) [146] No [...] . ...
Marilyn (PS26P) [147] Erm ... Oh and here's a quote.
[148] [reading] In almost any country standards speakers and non-standard speakers view the former as more successful, intelligent, ambitious, wealthy and educated.
[149] The status of items that were looked at er educated and uneducated, intelligent unintelligent, wealthy poor, successful unsuccessful, and ambitious and carefree.
[150] And solidarity items were trustworthy untrustworthy, good bad, sympathetic unsympathetic, friendly unfriendly, honest dis dishonest and dependable and unreliable. []
[151] Erm they were eight speech samples
Unknown speaker (G4VPSUNK) [laugh]
sally-ann (PS26N) [152] [...] without taking a breath.
Unknown speaker (G4VPSUNK) [laugh]
Marilyn (PS26P) [153] Erm and they were also asked where the where they though the speaker was from.
[154] So the results that were got, is that the Kentucky accented speech was high in solidarity and low in status.
[155] And the standard English was high status and low solidarity.
[156] ... So the stereotype of Appalachian English speakers is that they're not very intelligent, they've got a lack of ambition and success and a poor education.
[157] ... Erm and the two the two females in the solidarity evaluations they it was constant the d There wasn't any change erm across the two guises but with the males there was a significantly higher score in solidarity ... when they were in the Kentucky accented guises.
Chris (PS26R) [158] Erm so the er Kentucky people were [cough] erm not am ambitious and not educated [...] wasn't it?
Marilyn (PS26P) [159] Low intelligence, lack of ambition and success, and poor education.
[160] ... That's about it.
[161] ... Oh the stereotypes serve to strengthen ethnic identification and group boundaries.
[162] In such social social settings linguistic differences become important boundary markers that require careful cultivation.
Dave (PS26M) [163] Good.
[164] You said that some of their actual differences in speech [...] ?
Marilyn (PS26P) [165] Yeah.
[166] Erm ... it's talking about glide reduction.
sally-ann (PS26N) [167] What does it say?
Marilyn (PS26P) [...]
sally-ann (PS26N) [168] What what reduction?
Marilyn (PS26P) [169] Glide.
sally-ann (PS26N) [170] Glide?
Marilyn (PS26P) [171] Yeah.
sally-ann (PS26N) [172] Is it an eliminator?
Marilyn (PS26P) [173] Yeah elimination of the off glide on a word such as my which becomes ma.
Dave (PS26M) [174] Okay so [...]
sally-ann (PS26N) [...]
Dave (PS26M) [175] The sound at the end of my er it would seem to have like a glide [...]
Unknown speaker (G4VPSUNK) [...]
Chris (PS26R) [176] What's the difference between a glide and a diphthong [...] ?
Dave (PS26M) [177] Er ... I not really sure it depends on what you mean in that particular context.
[178] I mean in som In some ways in the word my it might have part of that symbol you write with a J in it.
[179] You know might be part of a actually a continuant rather than a vowel.
[180] And it could be the fact that maybe that's getting reduced.
[181] And as I say they would [...] .
[182] Erm
Marilyn (PS26P) [183] They just That was the only example they gave and said that as the word [...]
Dave (PS26M) [184] Well it [...] well it could b
Marilyn (PS26P) [...]
Dave (PS26M) [185] Right I mean it could be that that the th the glide from first vowel in the diphthong to the second one and that that's gone off so you're left wi with a [...]
Marilyn (PS26P) [186] No yeah [...]
Dave (PS26M) [187] I guess it's probably just that he glide up to the second part of the diphthong, ... has been displaced so you've just got the first part of it left ,
Marilyn (PS26P) [188] Mm.
Dave (PS26M) [189] so it's a single vowel. ...
Marilyn (PS26P) [190] Then another thing was Unstressed ing.
[191] That erm instead of saying ng they pronounced it as just N.
[192] In words such as building graduating and nothing it would just be an N on the end like buildin graduatin .
[193] Erm ... They dropped the final consonant in a co If there was like a consonant cluster at the end of the wor word.
[194] So instead of saying kept they'd just say kep .
[195] Erm ... [whispering] [...] [] of a unstressed syllable erm like X in except, so they'd just say except.
[196] Erm and of initial like instead of saying them they'd say just say em.
Unknown speaker (G4VPSUNK) [laugh]
Marilyn (PS26P) [197] Erm ... Oh yeah substitution of A for What's that with an A and a U [...] ?
Dave (PS26M) [198] Er ow?
Marilyn (PS26P) [199] Ow.
[200] Which makes Yeah which makes for [...] of Our and Are.
[201] Substitution of [phonic] I for [phonic] E so instead of forget you know [phonic] I for [phonic] E So instead of saying forget you'd say forgit .
[202] And
Chris (PS26R) [laugh]
Marilyn (PS26P) [203] rising pitch in declarative sentences.
[204] That's all.
Dave (PS26M) [205] Right, okay.
[206] [...] Have you got anything [...]
Chris (PS26R) [207] Yeah [...]
Unknown speaker (G4VPSUNK) [...]
Unknown speaker (G4VPSUNK) [208] go back to Alcuin bar [...]
sally-ann (PS26N) [209] Do do you still do this [...] title an all?
Dave (PS26M) [210] Erm I think so.
Marilyn (PS26P) [211] What are we going to do?
[212] What's the
Dave (PS26M) [213] Right.
Marilyn (PS26P) [214] subtitle gonna be?
Dave (PS26M) [215] Well there's three, there's three different ways of going about it I guess you could do.
Unknown speaker (G4VPSUNK) [laugh]
Unknown speaker (G4VPSUNK) [216] A whirlwind just come through the
Unknown speaker (G4VPSUNK) [laugh]
Unknown speaker (G4VPSUNK) [217] Oh god!
Unknown speaker (G4VPSUNK) [...]
sally-ann (PS26N) [218] When you left the door open the wind just blew
Marilyn (PS26P) [219] Said it in [...]
sally-ann (PS26N) [220] it in.
Chris (PS26R) [221] [laugh] Right.
[222] Erm ... [...]
sally-ann (PS26N) [223] [...] three ways to do an insect.
Dave (PS26M) [224] We should return to that book [...]
sally-ann (PS26N) [225] Oh right.
Marilyn (PS26P) [226] Sorry?
Unknown speaker (G4VPSUNK) [227] Na don't worry.
Chris (PS26R) [228] I did the one from the book list that was erm Giles and Howard.
Dave (PS26M) [229] Aha
Chris (PS26R) [230] No I didn't.
[231] I did Which one did I do Yes I did.
sally-ann (PS26N) [232] You did.
Chris (PS26R) [233] Giles.
[234] Well [...] Erm he's talking erm language convergence like erm shifting your sides [...] match.
[235] [...] as people are like.
[236] Erm convergence erm they describe as [reading] Individuals shift their speech styles to become more alike that of those with whom they are interacting.
[237] And the adaptations they make are made on several different levels erm they might become more alike in their language, in their pronunciation, their rate of speech, their pause or [...] utterance length and their vocal intensities [] . [...] ?
Unknown speaker (G4VPSUNK) [238] Mm.
Chris (PS26R) [239] Nothing.
Unknown speaker (G4VPSUNK) [...]
Chris (PS26R) [240] [reading] And erm also in what they're saying the intimacy of their self-dissuasions. []
[241] What they actually say themselves I suppose.
[242] Erm and it's talking about this er accommodation theory Giles' accommodation theory which has one main assumption erm that all the things I've just mentioned about pronunciation and speech rates and things, erm they all occur in in order to encourage more interaction between the two speakers.
[243] Erm so in assuming that that in these sort of situations, the speaker and the listener erm quote [reading] Share a set of interpreted procedures which allow speakers intention to be encoded by the speaker and correctly interpreted by the listener [] .
[244] Erm then it talks about similarity attraction processes erm and there's theory Similarity attraction process theory proposes that quote, [reading] The more similar our attitudes and beliefs are [...] with others the more likely it is we'll be attracted to them [] .
[245] Erm and speech convergence is one of the many methods of becoming more similar to another person, so that you erm get rid of your linguistic differences.
[246] Erm
sally-ann (PS26N) [247] So was that the convergence theory [...] ?
Chris (PS26R) [248] That was Convergence was when you shift your speech style to become more like somebody else.
[249] And erm similarity attraction
sally-ann (PS26N) [250] Oh
Chris (PS26R) [251] theory
sally-ann (PS26N) [252] sorry.
Chris (PS26R) [253] is that more similar your attitudes and beliefs are to somebody, the more likely it is that you'll [...] mutual attraction.
[254] [cough] And so we can show that by speech convergence.
[255] Erm convergence reflects a speakers desire for erm to get the listeners social approval.
[256] Erm because once you've got their approval that increase the attraction and the intelligibility of what you're saying and predictability but I don't know quite what they mean by that.
[257] Erm in general people desire approval more often than they don't, so the general tendency in conversations is for people to converge to each other in many situations.
[258] Erm Are you keeping up?
Marilyn (PS26P) [laugh]
sally-ann (PS26N) [259] Just about, yeah.
Unknown speaker (G4VPSUNK) [laugh]
Chris (PS26R) [260] Erm many factors effect what type and extent of convergence happens erm and these can include the range of the speakers repertoire, the probability that there will be future interactions with the same listener, ... erm the status relationship between the two ... participants and whether there's any recollections of previous shifts made by the listener in the same conversation.
[261] Erm ... and then it says that somebody called Natalie ... erm wrote in nineteen seventy five, that the greater somebody's need for approval, the greater their tendency will be to converge with a style.
[262] Erm and the way this is most often shown like the the th type of convergency they do is that they erm ... change their vocal intensity to match that of the other person and their pause length is made the same.
[263] Erm ... then it goes on about quite a bit of this Erm perception and decoding of the speech style er talking about er [...] Martin and Giles.
[264] Subject presumes perceived er speaker as pr prestigious and authoritative and they perceived that there might be future interaction with him perceived his speech is more similar to their own than subjects who were told nothing about the speaker.
[265] Erm and the difference in appraisal between the groups of people that knew about the speaker before and those that didn't know anything, they say it is important to the similarity attraction [...] .
[266] Erm social exchange processes this talks about the rewards and costs of convergence up against each other.
[267] Erm the similarity attraction model tends only to emph to emphasize the rewards of convergent [...] .
[268] Erm I E an increase in attraction or approval [...] the other person.
[269] But there are costs involved as well and these include the increased effort you have to make in conversation erm and loss of perceived integrity and personal group identity [...] sacrificing yourself to match up to them.
[270] Erm ... Yeah, and they say that er before we actually erm ... do a [laughing] speech convergence for want of a better phrase [] , erm that we kind of weigh up in our heads, quickly, the rewards and cost of you know alternative courses of action.
[271] And so from a choice of between X and Y we're going to choose the opt option that we think maximizes the chances of a positive outcome, I E approval.
[272] Erm so convergent speech acts should therefore incur more potential rewards for the speaker than costs.
[273] Erm the rewards they're talking about depend on which hat level your convergence occurs at.
[274] Erm and they give the example of erm a job interview Accent in a job interview.
[275] Where it's two males, male applicant and a male interviewer, and the prospective employee has a less prestigious accent than the interviewer, so it's quite likely that the prospective employee would shift his accent towards a more that of the employer, due to his relative need of approval so much more than ... vice versa.
[276] And the rewards then would be that erm from the interviewers point of view he be you know viewed as more intelligent, self-confident, industrious all this sort of thing, make him say determined, erm more understandable to the interviewer obviously, and also the there He's more likely to be well liked by the interviewer, and that's Because of that not only his voice but the content of what he's actually saying is gonna be more favourably looked upon.
[277] Erm ... then it talks about the opposite.
[278] Oh sorry that Before that er erm shows about how this erm convergence from dialectal to sort of pr prestigious or R P accent is known as a upward convergent.
[279] And then it talks about the opposite accent [...] and it gives the example of There'll be an industrial dispute in a small family business erm and there is possibly a greater need by the employer to win the workers' approval.
[280] Erm within the limits of his repertoire he'll shift his accent down towards that that of the workers erm shows them ... cooperation and that's known as a downward convergence.
[281] Erm downward convergence are generally done to reduce embarrassment between people of different statuses.
[282] ... Erm so it makes a common basis of communication.
[283] Mutual c [...] convergence can also occur with upwards convergent by person and that's completed by downward towards the other.
[284] That's generally if they both desire integration so it's not just done on the part of one person.
[285] Erm so they're saying that erm speech convergence is generally erm quite favourably perceived.
[286] That's about it really.
Dave (PS26M) [287] Right okay.
[288] You haven't got anything else to add before we talk about [...] ?
[289] Okay as I said before, I think there's sort of three ways of doing the essay.
[290] You can either think about doing one that is very literature based which I supposed might end up being ... sort of a rewrite of a lot of the stuff you can read.
[291] Or you can do a vaguely experimental sort of thing.
[292] Now there's two different things you can do, there's one which you were originally gonna do ... when it was a project.
Unknown speaker (G4VPSUNK) [293] Mm.
Dave (PS26M) [294] Which was to like actually do an experiment which might be a bit time consuming now and you might have to do
Unknown speaker (G4VPSUNK) [295] Yeah.
Dave (PS26M) [296] If you want to do it you haven't really got you probably haven't got the time .
Unknown speaker (G4VPSUNK) [297] Haven't got the time.
Dave (PS26M) [298] The other thing might be do just do a questionnaire asking people about their attitudes to accents and dialects and
Unknown speaker (G4VPSUNK) [299] Yes mm.
Dave (PS26M) [300] languages.
[301] And that's something which you haven't like got to do a lot of recording for You haven't got test conditions you've got to think of some questions and photocopy it.
Unknown speaker (G4VPSUNK) [302] Mm.
sally-ann (PS26N) [303] Mm.
Dave (PS26M) [304] And then if you want to read some literature and talk about some of the things which Once you've said what questions you want to ask you'll want to read some stuff You've either read a lot of it already, the stuff you've done today is useful, and do a bit of your essay saying, This is what the literature says, so we did an experiment to test this aspect and here's the results we found, let's discuss this.
[305] Erm
Marilyn (PS26P) [306] So based on match-guise
Dave (PS26M) [...]
Marilyn (PS26P) [307] that's what it's gonna be about.
Dave (PS26M) [308] Well I mean you can't really you can't do much you can't do much about [...]
Chris (PS26R) [309] You can't really do that though [...]
Dave (PS26M) [310] The best thing would be to s sort of say I don't know but the sort of thing which came into my mind were questions like you know, Which accents ... do you think
Chris (PS26R) [...]
Dave (PS26M) [311] Yeah or I mean which accents do you think people sound more intelligent when they've got I mean, it's not that's heavily match- guised cos in match guised people are doing it without knowing what they're doing.
[312] In this
Unknown speaker (G4VPSUNK) [313] Mm.
Dave (PS26M) [314] we're asking people to make an informed choice
Unknown speaker (G4VPSUNK) [315] Mm.
Dave (PS26M) [316] and people have got to be aware of their prejudices
Marilyn (PS26P) [317] But
Dave (PS26M) [318] when they're answering.
Marilyn (PS26P) [319] yeah everybody's got some sort of accent that grates on their nerves though haven't they?
Dave (PS26M) [320] Yeah.
Marilyn (PS26P) [321] That they can't stand and there's another one they think it's nice.
Dave (PS26M) [322] Yeah I mean people don't always agree on those things
Marilyn (PS26P) [323] Mm.
Dave (PS26M) [324] but you actually find some trends
Marilyn (PS26P) [325] Mm.
Dave (PS26M) [326] across the board.
sally-ann (PS26N) [327] Mm.
Dave (PS26M) [328] Er which also really doesn't look as if actually asks you [...] cross section.
Marilyn (PS26P) [329] Yeah you've gotta almost ask say you keep getting an accent erm Oh I don't know say Brummie accent or something that people don't really think sounds very nice.
Dave (PS26M) [330] Mhm.
Marilyn (PS26P) [331] Then you've got to go and try and find somebody from Birmingham saying [...] and erm [...]
Dave (PS26M) [332] Yeah I mean
Chris (PS26R) [333] Mm
Dave (PS26M) [334] if you can actually try and find one.
[335] I mean it's probably a good idea to make a If you do a questionnaire to make a note of what accent
Marilyn (PS26P) [...]
Dave (PS26M) [336] the people you're asking have got.
Marilyn (PS26P) [337] Yeah.
Dave (PS26M) [338] And that way when you analyze the results you can sort of say, Well ... we found that say Birmingham was very disliked erm but you can say that wasn't ... I mean if everybody in the whole sample
Unknown speaker (G4VPSUNK) [cough]
Dave (PS26M) [339] had been ... I dunno a very [...] then you can say, Oh so it doesn't really show very much.
[340] But if you have a reasonable cross section of the country and your result was still that Birmingham was looked down upon as a low status accent, then at least you can [...] your results so. [...] .
Marilyn (PS26P) [341] Would you have to say why?
[342] Why you
Dave (PS26M) [343] Well I think if you can come up with some suggestions you don't have to say why.
[344] Y you can say why you think it might be.
Marilyn (PS26P) [345] Some of it's the erm Actually could we put something like that in the questionnaire, What don't you like about it.
Dave (PS26M) [346] Yeah definitely.
Marilyn (PS26P) [347] Erm
Chris (PS26R) [348] Mm.
Marilyn (PS26P) [349] but the thing is [...]
Dave (PS26M) [350] See if you can actually quantify it or if it's irrational.
Marilyn (PS26P) [351] Yeah but I I mean sort of patronize them
sally-ann (PS26N) [352] [cough] They might of [...] Oh sorry
Marilyn (PS26P) [353] but because they're not linguists
sally-ann (PS26N) [354] Yeah.
Marilyn (PS26P) [355] they might not know how to say it.
Dave (PS26M) [356] Well
sally-ann (PS26N) [357] They might might
Dave (PS26M) [358] in some ways the way that people describe things
Marilyn (PS26P) [359] The words they use .
Dave (PS26M) [360] I mean they're not a linguist but the words they use will say a lot about what they think about [...] .
Marilyn (PS26P) [361] A lot about what they think.
Dave (PS26M) [362] I mean if somebody says I used to People finding [...] grating people might say, Oh I find it grating but it doesn't really mean anything does it?
Marilyn (PS26P) [363] Mm.
Dave (PS26M) [364] And s I mean that's a a sort of non-linguistic of the people use but you sort of
sally-ann (PS26N) [365] I suppose you have to into something linguistic then?
Dave (PS26M) [366] And you have to work out what they mean by that.
[367] Er I mean it could just be that they don't like it, so anything which they don't like is grating or
Unknown speaker (G4VPSUNK) [368] Mm.
Dave (PS26M) [369] Whatever.
[370] I mean
Unknown speaker (G4VPSUNK) [...]
Dave (PS26M) [371] does that sound like the decent thing to do?
Unknown speaker (G4VPSUNK) [372] Yeah.
Marilyn (PS26P) [373] Should we all do the same questions ?
Chris (PS26R) [374] I I [...] get together
Dave (PS26M) [375] Yeah.
Chris (PS26R) [376] on the same ?
Marilyn (PS26P) [377] Yeah.
Dave (PS26M) [378] I think you should all do the same questionnaire and the same survey but then if you can write it up separately.
Marilyn (PS26P) [379] Yeah.
sally-ann (PS26N) [380] Yeah.
Marilyn (PS26P) [381] So d do you want us to do like tables, results, you know
Chris (PS26R) [382] I don't [laugh]
Marilyn (PS26P) [383] or just write [...] ?
Dave (PS26M) [384] Er it's up to you I mean if your results I mean you're not going to have loads and loads of results.
[385] So
Unknown speaker (G4VPSUNK) [386] No
Dave (PS26M) [387] I mean doing a couple of tables probably won't be that hard work cos it just be a case of a list of averages or something .
Marilyn (PS26P) [388] Yeah.
Dave (PS26M) [389] Or a list of scores.
[390] But I mean it's up to you if results are very simple you can sort of say, Oh well sixty percent went this way and forty
Marilyn (PS26P) [391] Mm.
Dave (PS26M) [392] went the other way.
[393] I mean it's up to you to display the data in the way that you think's best.
Chris (PS26R) [394] Okay.
Dave (PS26M) [395] Erm ... is everyone okay with that?
Marilyn (PS26P) [396] Yeah.
sally-ann (PS26N) [397] Mm.
Dave (PS26M) [398] Right the best thing to do
Chris (PS26R) [399] [...] should we do it now?
[400] The questions? [...]
Dave (PS26M) [401] [...] think of some now.
[402] Because if you should think some now in the next five or ten minutes, and then if during the next week you meet in the week sometime
Unknown speaker (G4VPSUNK) [403] Mm.
Dave (PS26M) [404] to organize this.
Chris (PS26R) [405] [...] do we do we want
Dave (PS26M) [406] And if you get
Chris (PS26R) [407] to Sorry to interrupt.
[408] I was gonna say
Dave (PS26M) [409] Sorry.
Chris (PS26R) [410] do we want to erm go I mean obviously we want to go away and I'll do it with my friend and you'll do it your
Marilyn (PS26P) [411] Mm.
Chris (PS26R) [412] friend and you'll do it with your friend.
[413] Erm but do you want us to keep our own results or do you want us to pool all [...] together
Dave (PS26M) [414] I think you should pool together
Marilyn (PS26P) [...]
Chris (PS26R) [...]
sally-ann (PS26N) [415] Say we could do ten each or something like that.
Dave (PS26M) [416] Yeah that would only be
Marilyn (PS26P) [417] Yeah
Dave (PS26M) [418] thirty people's plenty really [...]
Marilyn (PS26P) [419] Yeah okay
Dave (PS26M) [420] something.
Marilyn (PS26P) [421] Right.
Dave (PS26M) [422] Er I might say if keep a little check list of whether each person you ask is male or female or how old they are
sally-ann (PS26N) [423] Mm.
Dave (PS26M) [424] what accent they've got I mean th that's plenty to do.
Chris (PS26R) [425] Yeah so yeah they've got to add some conditions on top of this things so it's like should we do an age range thing?
[426] Or is that gonna be too wide [...]
sally-ann (PS26N) [427] Well [...]
Unknown speaker (G4VPSUNK) [...]
Dave (PS26M) [428] I think [...] one person who is in their thirty or forties or two people so, you know you can't really quantify that very easily.
sally-ann (PS26N) [429] Yeah.
Unknown speaker (G4VPSUNK) [430] Mm.
Dave (PS26M) [431] Er so you might be best just sticking to people who are the s around the same age you know eighteen to twenty two or something.
sally-ann (PS26N) [432] Is it best to do sort of a say if a question, Which accent do you not like?
[433] Is it best to do a series of accents and get 'em to tick or get 'em to [...]
Marilyn (PS26P) [434] Yeah like multiple choice ones.
sally-ann (PS26N) [435] Cos if you get em If you put a bo A multiple choice and if They're not actually think they just like look at one and, Oh I don't really like that all I don't really like [...] think about it .
Marilyn (PS26P) [436] Yeah they put an idea into their heads don't you? yeah.
sally-ann (PS26N) [437] Yes.
Dave (PS26M) [438] Yeah.
Chris (PS26R) [439] Yeah.
Dave (PS26M) [440] It it [...]
sally-ann (PS26N) [...]
Dave (PS26M) [441] has this property of I you do put a list of accents it's a good idea to put other at the bottom in case there is
Chris (PS26R) [442] Mm mm.
Dave (PS26M) [443] one you haven't mentioned .
Marilyn (PS26P) [444] Mm.
Dave (PS26M) [445] Because
Chris (PS26R) [446] There's there's so many though aren't there I mean there's that Scottish accents which I love but other ones are a bit kind of difficult to understand you know.
Dave (PS26M) [447] Yeah I mean if you sort of put Scottish accent then you're probably going to [...]
sally-ann (PS26N) [448] But
Dave (PS26M) [449] lots of Scottish people.
Unknown speaker (G4VPSUNK) [laugh]
Dave (PS26M) [450] what's what's a Scottish accent
Chris (PS26R) [451] Well there just think of it as being very different don't they?
Dave (PS26M) [452] Well yeah.
[453] I mean [...]
sally-ann (PS26N) [454] Course they [...]
Chris (PS26R) [455] [...] yeah.
Dave (PS26M) [456] Er so ... you might be better of leaving it open.
[457] Or leave it open for some questions if you want to test a ps specific thing in another question then try and test that.
Chris (PS26R) [458] Mm.
Dave (PS26M) [459] Erm.
[460] A thing that's really [...] about accents that if you say to somebody, What accent don't you like?
[461] They might really dislike sort of a standard English accent sort of
Chris (PS26R) [462] But they don't [...] yeah
Dave (PS26M) [463] standard sort of middle class thing but the pre thin they might not think of that because people sort of quite often think of that as not being an accent.
Chris (PS26R) [464] Yeah.
Dave (PS26M) [465] Which is quite difficult.
Chris (PS26R) [466] Yeah well it's on all the radio and T V and stuff isn't it ?
Dave (PS26M) [467] Yeah.
Chris (PS26R) [468] And they don't think about it or
Marilyn (PS26P) [469] Mm.
Chris (PS26R) [470] or you could think it also [...] true that I think wh what you think you're supposed to like as well.
Dave (PS26M) [471] Yes I mean [...]
Chris (PS26R) [472] [...] you're keep being told that's the way you're supposed to [...]
Dave (PS26M) [473] Sorry.
[474] If you did have a list it [...] one of the list [...] B B C English or Queen's English or something that makes people know what they w what you're trying to tell them .
Chris (PS26R) [475] B B C accent yeah
Dave (PS26M) [476] Er whereas if you ask somebody to name an accent they'd probably think of regional varieties, urban varieties,
Chris (PS26R) [477] But they don't think it is one
Dave (PS26M) [478] rural ones .
Chris (PS26R) [479] do they?
Dave (PS26M) [480] Well you could you could do you could
sally-ann (PS26N) [481] [...] putting a Say if you put
Unknown speaker (G4VPSUNK) [482] I won't join in this
Unknown speaker (G4VPSUNK) [laugh]
sally-ann (PS26N) [483] Say you put, What accent do you not like?
[484] And put a line.
[485] And put in brackets E G you know how you like give an example for them to fill in and say E G B B C
Dave (PS26M) [486] Yes
sally-ann (PS26N) [487] English something like that
Dave (PS26M) [488] Well what what you could do is ... put in brackets somewhere a list of [...] accents you can think of so that if people really don't know what to do .
Marilyn (PS26P) [489] Yeah so you've got a list [...]
Dave (PS26M) [490] It's not your list of choices it's not going to have to take box form.
[491] But they can just look through so they can say I can't think of an accent let's have a quick look through this list.
Marilyn (PS26P) [492] Yeah. [...]
sally-ann (PS26N) [493] Yeah.
Dave (PS26M) [494] Er
Marilyn (PS26P) [...]
Dave (PS26M) [495] and that way you can include [...] you can even include sort of very upper class varieties which are sort of
Chris (PS26R) [496] We we could ask them actually where you could put where are you from
Dave (PS26M) [497] Yeah.
Chris (PS26R) [498] and then say, Do you perceive yourself as having an accent?
Dave (PS26M) [499] Yeah.
Chris (PS26R) [500] As well and so that that get's over whether they ... you know that get's over this thing about erm ... views of other people j the way you [...]
Dave (PS26M) [501] Yeah.
Chris (PS26R) [502] somebody else up you've got a massive accent, but then [...] turns round and says, Well so have you.
[503] So there again perhaps try and find somebody who's from where they've said they're from and they might be ticking this box you know .
Dave (PS26M) [504] Yeah.
[505] Another thing that might be worth doing as well I mean don't make it too complicated we ought to [...] about which things to put in.
[506] if you want to say put the name of an accent down You wanted to put say Birmingham and then say, How would you rate people who have a strong accent from this place on a scale of one to five for ... friendless, honesty the things which you could [...]
sally-ann (PS26N) [507] Yeah
Marilyn (PS26P) [508] Yeah
Chris (PS26R) [509] Yeah
Dave (PS26M) [510] scale of one to five for each one with one being er
Marilyn (PS26P) [511] But yeah I mean it's not going to be quite so true because they're gonna think Well when you write it down you think Well actually it's got nothing to do with this be really clever.
[512] But and that takes away that initial reaction.
Dave (PS26M) [513] Yeah.
Dave (PS26M) [514] [...] have to put something they're gonna have prejudices and [...]
Chris (PS26R) [515] Yeah that's right
Dave (PS26M) [516] Er but we like say don't want to put everything in cos it would take you a while to analyze that but that's another thing you might want to put on.
sally-ann (PS26N) [517] How many questions do you think?
Dave (PS26M) [518] I don't know I mean ... I think if you had a double side of a sheet of A four that was well spaced out and stuff that would be [...]
Unknown speaker (G4VPSUNK) [sneeze]
Dave (PS26M) [519] er you wouldn't want to make them You wouldn't particularly have more than a dozen or so would you?
Marilyn (PS26P) [520] No.
Chris (PS26R) [521] No.
Dave (PS26M) [522] But I mean [...] more or less so You'll probably get a feel for when you've got [...] things.
sally-ann (PS26N) [523] yeah.
Dave (PS26M) [524] I reckon your sort of timetable for doing this wants to be, early next week to meet to work out exactly what questions you are gonna do and mak make a questionnaire and perhaps later on in the week Wednesday, Thursday, Friday, start to ask some people Now on the Friday this time this we this time next week you c
Marilyn (PS26P) [...]
Dave (PS26M) [525] you can talk about some of your results in here and we'll discuss about anything that's gonna be problems we'll discuss how you're can write it up and how you want to display the statistics if
Chris (PS26R) [526] Yeah.
Dave (PS26M) [527] you've got some complicated ones.
[528] Er and then you can write it up sometime during week four and hand it in sort of Wednesday, Thursday week four would be quite good.
Marilyn (PS26P) [529] Okay what Do we have to do a methodology project as well?
Dave (PS26M) [530] I don't think you do [...]
sally-ann (PS26N) [531] [...] .
Dave (PS26M) [532] or do you?
Marilyn (PS26P) [533] To be in when?
sally-ann (PS26N) [534] By end of week four.
Chris (PS26R) [535] Yeah.
sally-ann (PS26N) [536] Three sides.
Chris (PS26R) [537] Three sides.
sally-ann (PS26N) [538] It's not bad it's
Unknown speaker (G4VPSUNK) [539] Mm.
sally-ann (PS26N) [540] just a
Marilyn (PS26P) [541] We're gonna have to be doing that at the same time.
Dave (PS26M) [542] Well I mean I a asked Christine yesterday and she was saying that because this isn't a project any more it's actually supposed to in the end of week three.
[543] But you know I think if I say to her [...] hand it in week four then
Unknown speaker (G4VPSUNK) [544] Mm.
Dave (PS26M) [545] she won't mind so [...] push past week four she might
Marilyn (PS26P) [546] Yeah.
sally-ann (PS26N) [547] we could do the first bits and [...] about an hour really, this weekend not [...] at work or anything.
Unknown speaker (G4VPSUNK) [laugh]
sally-ann (PS26N) [548] No cos we've we've got the first two bits, we've got the rational for the experiment and the method
Chris (PS26R) [549] What do we have to do?
sally-ann (PS26N) [550] We just have to write one side on the rational and one side on the method and the third side's on the results.
[551] But I mean we don't know h how long [...]
Marilyn (PS26P) [552] We haven't got eight
sally-ann (PS26N) [553] So we can do the first two.
[554] No he's gonna give us the other results.
Marilyn (PS26P) [555] Erm.
sally-ann (PS26N) [556] We can do the first two and then [...]
Chris (PS26R) [557] [...] two
sally-ann (PS26N) [558] It's on that Were you there the other day when we got that sheet?
Marilyn (PS26P) [559] Yeah is on there?
sally-ann (PS26N) [560] Yeah it's all
Marilyn (PS26P) [561] Okay.
sally-ann (PS26N) [562] on there.
Marilyn (PS26P) [563] Oh good okay.
sally-ann (PS26N) [564] But why do we do the experiment then?
Chris (PS26R) [laugh]
Marilyn (PS26P) [565] Oh I dunno .
Chris (PS26R) [...]
Dave (PS26M) [566] Okay so we ... You're really gonna have to sort of do
Marilyn (PS26P) [567] Meet on Monday
sally-ann (PS26N) [568] [...] Monday .
Dave (PS26M) [569] So.
[570] So if next week c you can at least of started
Chris (PS26R) [571] [...] three hours a week
Dave (PS26M) [572] to [...] the questionnaire er but we definitely have done finish finished making the questionnaire I mean gonna have to
Chris (PS26R) [573] Well yeah cos we want to get out and distribute it and get it back.
Dave (PS26M) [574] Yeah.
Marilyn (PS26P) [575] [...] can do it on Monday and we can People will have until Friday then to ask [...] .
Chris (PS26R) [576] Yeah.
sally-ann (PS26N) [577] Yeah.
[578] ... Yeah we'll do it on Monday.
Chris (PS26R) [579] What have we got? [...]
Marilyn (PS26P) [580] Well I've got three hours from straight from nine fifteen in the morning so I'd like [laughing] a bit of a break actually after that [] .
Chris (PS26R) [581] No sorry.
Marilyn (PS26P) [laugh] [laugh]
Chris (PS26R) [582] [...] afternoon.
Marilyn (PS26P) [583] Oh.
sally-ann (PS26N) [584] I've got one free in the afternoon so
Marilyn (PS26P) [585] I've got a three
Chris (PS26R) [586] Yeah I have
Marilyn (PS26P) [587] fifteen as well.
Chris (PS26R) [...]
Marilyn (PS26P) [588] I've got [...] .
Chris (PS26R) [589] Oh
sally-ann (PS26N) [590] Only take an hour or so won't it anyway ?
Marilyn (PS26P) [591] Yeah.
Dave (PS26M) [592] Okay if you want any help or anything I should be around for [...]
Marilyn (PS26P) [593] Okay.
sally-ann (PS26N) [...]
Dave (PS26M) [594] next week so catch me if you want anything.
Marilyn (PS26P) [595] Got anything together?
Chris (PS26R) [...]
sally-ann (PS26N) [596] We've got Principles of Linguistics .
Marilyn (PS26P) [597] Principles at nine fifteen though I've got to one
Chris (PS26R) [598] Oh yeah.
sally-ann (PS26N) [599] Mm I've got English and then I've got [...] the afternoon [...]
Chris (PS26R) [...]
Marilyn (PS26P) [600] [...] I can do at two fifteen if you like.
Chris (PS26R) [601] Yeah I think I can do two fifteen.
sally-ann (PS26N) [602] I think I might be able to [...]
Marilyn (PS26P) [603] [...] is two fifteen okay?
sally-ann (PS26N) [604] two fifteen [...]
Chris (PS26R) [605] She said two fifteen
Marilyn (PS26P) [606] Let's do lunch.
Chris (PS26R) [607] here.
Marilyn (PS26P) [laugh]
Chris (PS26R) [laugh]
Dave (PS26M) [...]
sally-ann (PS26N) [608] Right a a t Here?
Marilyn (PS26P) [609] Okay two fifteen yeah.
Chris (PS26R) [610] I'll probably forget you'll probably come and get me.
Marilyn (PS26P) [laugh]
Dave (PS26M) [611] Okay let's hold it there.
Chris (PS26R) [612] Yeah
Dave (PS26M) [613] Right, cheers.
[614] See you next week or before then.
sally-ann (PS26N) [615] Yeah. [tape change]