BNC Text G4W

First-year undergraduate tutorial: linguistics. Sample containing about 6304 words speech recorded in educational context

8 speakers recorded by respondent number C200

PS26U X m (Dave, age unknown, tutor) unspecified
PS26V X m (Scott, age unknown, student) unspecified
PS26W X f (Lindsay, age unknown, student) unspecified
PS26X X f (Rebecca, age unknown, student) unspecified
G4WPS000 X u (No name, age unknown) unspecified
G4WPS001 X u (No name, age unknown) unspecified
G4WPSUNK (respondent W0000) X u (Unknown speaker, age unknown) other
G4WPSUGP (respondent W000M) X u (Group of unknown speakers, age unknown) other

1 recordings

  1. Tape 096501 recorded on unknown date. LocationYorkshire: York ( York University ) Activity: 1st year Undergraduate Linguistics Tutorial

Undivided text

Unknown speaker (G4WPSUNK) [1] Okay would you like to start then?
Dave (PS26U) [2] Right has everyone had a chance to look at some stuff since last time?
[3] Much.
[4] ... Okay Sally-Ann, have you had a chance to look at some of the things which we're gonna do today as well?
Scott (PS26V) [5] I haven't had a look at any books at all but, erm I was worried about [...] .
Dave (PS26U) [6] Okay so do you want to run us through some of the things that [...] we haven't really discussed in detail of what we're gonna talk about in here today, specifically have we, I mean I thought something along the lines of er ... the nature and extent of sexual variations in English, or any other language you want.
[7] So in what way can it differ Men and women differ in conversation? and you can make it specific you can just discuss it and make very specific interruptions or turn-taking if you want.
[8] On the other hand you could talk about things in general what the different aspects in the [...] speech are
Unknown speaker (G4WPSUNK) [9] [...] being in other languages as well.
[10] Is this
Dave (PS26U) [11] yeah I mean okay [...] cover the languages to show how they did it properly, so if there is something else you want to bring in then that would be good.
[12] But I suppose it would mainly worthwhile concentrating on English, because that's where most of the data's from.
[13] Er I've got some notes here which I can go through [...] wouldn't actually be necessary but ... When Sally-Ann's going through her notes if anyone else would like raise anything which backs it up or disagrees with it or whatever then, you know please you know butt in and say whatever think might might be relevant at the time. ...
Unknown speaker (G4WPSUNK) [14] have you stopped the erm [...] the
Unknown speaker (G4WPSUNK) [...]
Unknown speaker (G4WPSUNK) [...]
(G4WPS001) [15] The don't [...] before Easter though.
Unknown speaker (G4WPSUNK) [16] What [...] ?
Unknown speaker (G4WPSUNK) [...]
Dave (PS26U) [17] I'm not quite sure when the official handing in date for this essay is, because of the fact that some essays have overrun from last term.
[18] I suppose that really, probably is Friday week three but, I don't suppose it has to be.
[19] ... Which reminds me.
[20] Have I got your last essay in yet or not?
Unknown speaker (G4WPSUNK) [21] [...] I'm a little bit confused [...] there and I can't get it out.
Dave (PS26U) [22] Okay.
Unknown speaker (G4WPSUNK) [23] Honest.
Dave (PS26U) [24] Okay.
[25] Well like I say I'll I'll mark the rest of them when I've got them all in.
[26] I can't really mark then till I don I don't want to mark them until I've got them all in cos otherwise it's not really fair ... so hopefully next week sometime.
Unknown speaker (G4WPSUNK) [27] I [...] this morning, I've been running around [...] and I can't get it out [...] .
Dave (PS26U) [28] What is it on WordPerfect?
Unknown speaker (G4WPSUNK) [29] Hm.
[30] I keep getting [...] and things like that.
Dave (PS26U) [31] Oh maybe [...] could go to the advisory after I think they're open till five.
Unknown speaker (G4WPSUNK) [32] Mm.
Dave (PS26U) [33] If you go there afterwards and what they say.
[34] Er right okay then.
Scott (PS26V) [35] Right erm these notes are sort of based on a lecture that I went to when I was in sixth form erm and the theme for it is, Men And Women, Do We Speak The Same Language?
[36] Erm so first of all sounds and pronunciation.
[37] Er men tend to have a lower pitch on the whole, erm th they're louder and the's due to their physiological differences, erm Jacqueline [...] once said that, Men try to talk bigger than they are whereas women talk as though they're smaller.
[38] Erm it's been shown that women strive for a [...] pronunciations and and sort of go more towards the [...] .
[39] Erm some women tend to have more pitch variation and they're more emotional so they're more likely to use encouraging tones er which can sometimes be seen to be slightly patronizing, whereas boys think it's soppy to be [...] emotional or [...] expressive way, so that if you're in school and you're asking people to read out in class, erm a girl would be more likely to be more expressive, whereas a boy would be a little bit more monotonous, and just sort of read it out and not put any emotion into it.
[40] And go to words of meaning, erm and the descriptions of colours where men are more likely to say purple whereas women would describe it as aubergine or plum and go into more detail about the shading than the colour.
[41] Then erm names, babies I if a baby's christened Timothy er it gets called Timmy or Nicholas gets called Nicky, which sort of ties in with the biscuits being called bickie and horsie and doggie and all this sort of ee things that you say to babies.
[42] But as soon as the n the kid Nicky hits teenage years then he wants to be called Nick, whereas if the girl's been christened Nicola and she's called Nicky through her childhood, when she hits teens she's still called Nicky.
[43] So girls don't seem to mind the ee thing whereas the the boys do.
[44] Erm also if you look at entertainment, like James Saville calls himself Jimmy Saville, Terence Wogan is Terry Wogan, so but then you look at people like Charlie Chaplin, when he was doing his comedian role he was c he called himself Charlie Chaplin, and when he's directing films he called himself Charles Chaplin, so maybe it's all like a bit [...] of a serious thing.
[45] So maybe that implies that when [...] do [...] the kids have got that ee ending.
[46] [...] Then we go to the taboo language and if you talk about when you go to the toilet, if you Everybody excuses themselves to leave and that's both men and women and then somehow you have to say where you're going, so the women are more likely to use the polite sort of euphemistic kinds of things like they'd say toilet or loo, whereas the men are more likely to say bog.
[47] And they actually say what they do when they get there.
[48] Oh, younger men are more likely to use coarser tones and be more explicit erm although they wouldn't use those sort terms to their father or elder men, and the women are more likely to use euphemisms like Spend a penny, Powder your nose and things like that.
[49] And then we go to grammar.
[50] Women tend to use more standard forms er and men are more likely to use regional dialect forms.
[51] So that shows women are more status conscious and men are more Maybe could be more concerned with their macho image, and they associate the non-standard with macho image.
[52] Erm there is a study where they looked into erm men in the workforce and women and in the workforce and er if men worked together in factories it sort of reinforces their speech patterns, their workmates are reinforcing their speech pattern so they're more likely to use non- standard.
[53] And then there was a study into and area of Belfast where most of the men were unemployed and it was the women who were going out to work in the factory and it was found to be the other way round, and the women spoke more of a non-standard than the men did [...] when the men were staying at home.
[54] It was the women going out to work.
[55] Then we get use and interaction.
[56] Women tend to use more [...] questions which sort of softens the effect of what they're saying, so they'll say things like, There we go and the men say things like, Let's go.
[57] Erm women are more likely to use the words such as may, might, possibly, perhaps which seem to be a little less forceful.
[58] In turn-taking men have be shown to interrupt women more than they interrupt other men, er and then there's the use of mm.
[59] Erm it's been shown that men seem to er connect the word mm with I agree, that's what they use it to mean whereas the women tend to use mm as I understand.
[60] Erm so where do these differences come from?
[61] They come from the way [...] socializes children er during the early school years, boys and girls tend to have different activity, the boys in the groups Are in groups outdoors and the girls and in tos and fros and they're sharing their little secrets and being loyal to each other and whispering away in little corners.
[62] [...] So that women aren't taken seriously.
[63] So do we speak the same language?
[64] Yes, but with differences and we don't always [...] the same message.
[65] And that's that.
Dave (PS26U) [66] Okay, right.
[67] Has anyone got any other things to add to that?
Unknown speaker (G4WPSUNK) [68] No.
[69] There was a [...] when we were talking about erm how er women sit there and chatter, it's sort of trivial.
[70] Said to be trivial erm which meant it isn't erm [...] book says that erm cos women talk about things like erm children and husband and things,
Dave (PS26U) [71] Mhm
Unknown speaker (G4WPSUNK) [72] whereas men talk about cars and stuff like that.
[73] And that's [...] it's not true at all it's just different it considered.
Dave (PS26U) [74] Right, and we've got part of this linked in with the stuff you might have done on Sapir-Wharf Hypothesis in the sense that er people talk about different things because they might be relevant to their actual lives.
Unknown speaker (G4WPSUNK) [cough]
Dave (PS26U) [75] Er and of course if you're in one group, you might think that something's trivial and you might denigrate another a group for talking about those things, when in fact that group sees it as an important talk about it might see the thing that the other group hold dear to talk about as something trivial, and to denigrate.
[76] So yeah, I mean that's definitely something that that comes into it.
[77] ... Erm what sort of d differences are there in conversational styles?
[78] I mean it's a thing you might want to talk think about or you night have read about, things like interjections and er interruptions and overlapping. ...
Lindsay (PS26W) [79] [...] and how erm men tend to ignore them, they're like they're not interested and not going to pay any attention.
Dave (PS26U) [80] Right, do you want to explain that a bit more, about
Lindsay (PS26W) [81] Well things that they [...] the actually say anything which is sort of a sign that you [...] listening, understanding but if they delay it, it's say it 's the women that pauses, [...] wanting some sort of [...] suddenly realizes [...]
Dave (PS26U) [82] Right. ...
(G4WPS001) [83] [...] that women uses use minimal responses anyway, then then [...] you know like all males speak a male [...] didn't use minimal responses [...]
Unknown speaker (G4WPSUNK) [...]
(G4WPS001) [84] so it wouldn't be that they interruptions listening necessarily it would just be that wouldn't expect to have to. [...]
Scott (PS26V) [85] Yeah, right yeah.
(G4WPS001) [86] Women use women use minim minimal
Unknown speaker (G4WPSUNK) [...]
(G4WPS001) [87] responses [...] but when men use them it quite often delay [...] .
Dave (PS26U) [88] I mean one thing that's mentioned before is about tag questions, which is where you put on question to the end of your sentence, as in Oh don't you agree or Isn't it or you know you know the sort of thing I mean.
[89] Er now I mean One thing that a lot of the literature says is that this might indicate a power, and another thing that the literature says
Unknown speaker (G4WPSUNK) [cough]
Dave (PS26U) [90] is that it tends to be women who do more of it.
Unknown speaker (G4WPSUNK) [91] It does, [...] and say that erm you say that [...]
Dave (PS26U) [92] Okay.
Unknown speaker (G4WPSUNK) [93] but I can't remember
Dave (PS26U) [94] This is one of the things that some studies have shown it to be the case, other studies haven't.
[95] ... One thing that might be relevant to this is the fact that er one study came up with two different types of tag question, they call the two different tabs, aka tag question Modal tags and Effective tags.
[96] Now modal tag is one for seeking agreement whereas an effective tag is one that shows concern to the addressee and according to this study, if you looked and the sheer number of tags, women did use more tags than men, but in actual fact women used a higher proportion of the effective tags than men did.
[97] Women used seventy five percent effective tags and twenty five percent modal tags, so in general their tags were to show concern rather than to actual seek agreement, so it wasn't showing a lack of power according to this study.
[98] Whereas the men had sixty percent effective tags and forty percent modal which is still the same direction but to a lesser extent.
[99] Which shows that perhaps a misindica In this situation perhaps the men are seeking agreement rather than the women are, because the women seem to be doing it to actually show concern, rather than to seek agreement, which doesn't Turns a lot of the traditional thing about tag questions on it head.
Unknown speaker (G4WPSUNK) [100] [...] pointed out how tag questions [...] there's only certain structures you can put them in, that were going to direct it rather than proper questions say someone who's asking all proper questions, [...] is he going to use as many tag questions anyway?
Dave (PS26U) [101] Mhm.
Unknown speaker (G4WPSUNK) [102] and that sort of the [...]
Dave (PS26U) [103] that's something else which you might find, a lot of the time in er literature about interaction with children, you might find that er where parents are asking their children to do something, like if they're playing a game, you might find some You'll find that mothers and fathers talk differently to sons and daughters er so you start off with a direct ac action like Put that one there, if they're playing lego or something, straight prom Put that on there down to er Wouldn't it be a good idea to put that on there down to Could you put that on there or Let's put it on there.
[104] And you find more or more or less forceful ways of of giving directives, and one way of making some things perhaps a bit less forceful is to put a tag question on cos it's sort of adding a sort of pleading note on to it, to ask somebody to do it, I think.
[105] ... Has anyone read anything about turn-taking in conversation?
Rebecca (PS26X) [106] Yes.
Dave (PS26U) [107] And how that works.
Rebecca (PS26X) [108] [...] sort of there's a model, a conversational model and if it [...] if it's if it's [...] conversation is following a model then it's It means that it's running smoothly
Dave (PS26U) [109] Mhm.
Rebecca (PS26X) [110] and you erm [...] you know your next big [...] and the [...] mean a [...] signals as to whether or not it sort of the floor's being offered.
Dave (PS26U) [111] Mhm.
Rebecca (PS26X) [112] And you've just go to to [...] generally in single sex conversation it follows the model.
[113] Quite often erm when it's men and women speaking the men will interrupt a little more erm which makes the women fall silent.
[114] Whereas women hardly ever overlapped [...]
Dave (PS26U) [115] Mhm okay.
[116] So in the two things that can happen in conversation to to give it To make it stop running smoothly [...] are overlapping and interruption and like some of them are quite difficult to tell apart but usually it's If you're transcribing stuff it's fairly obvious.
[117] What's Can you remember what the point in a conversation is where a speaker has a chance to to become a new speaker?
[118] Like it's it's
Unknown speaker (G4WPSUNK) [...]
Scott (PS26V) [119] T R P
(G4WPS001) [120] [...] transition relevance point?
Dave (PS26U) [121] Yeah that's the thing I was thinking of the T R P like you say the transition relevance point.
[122] I mean that is like a point in the conversation where a change in turn-taking could ha potentially happen.
[123] Now when you get to a T R P what are the three things that can happen?
[124] I don't know if any of the li any of the stuff you read mentioned this or not.
Scott (PS26V) [125] Erm the the [...] somebody speaking includes erm address someone to make it really obvious who the next speaker's going to be.
Dave (PS26U) [126] Mhm.
Scott (PS26V) [127] Or it you leave it open and one of the other speakers in the [...] More than One or more of the other speakers in the conversation could decide to start to talking, or no one could erm start talking [...] the present speaker at the moment gets another chance to carry on.
Dave (PS26U) [128] Okay that's right, yeah.
[129] ... Okay has anybody else got anything more on that on that subject? ... [...] if we go back for a bit and just go back to the
Unknown speaker (G4WPSUNK) [cough]
Dave (PS26U) [130] idea of the theory, which is something that probably should have come at the beginning but it doesn't matter too much.
[131] And like there are two different sort of schools of thought about men and women's conversation.
[132] Er one is like the traditional school of though and the other one is like the feminist way of looking at things.
[133] Er just to run through what the two ... what the two schools sort of think it will be fair to say that the traditional school thinks as follows.
[134] Er in terms of syntax and pronunciation, women were always thought of as being more careful than men, er a lot of dialectologists in the past considered women to be very conservative in their speech, they ascribed conservatism to them.
[135] Er men and women were always thought to use different specialist vocabularies, that's something else that was said.
[136] Er women were also said to be polite, diffident, verbose and deferential, which
Unknown speaker (G4WPSUNK) [137] What all of those?
Dave (PS26U) [138] Mhm.
Unknown speaker (G4WPSUNK) [139] [...] polite and deferential.
Dave (PS26U) [140] Verbose as in when they actually said things, they they did a lot of talking.
[141] I'm not saying this is actually correct but this is the traditional view.
Unknown speaker (G4WPSUNK) [142] Okay.
Dave (PS26U) [143] Except that women were deferential to other speakers they would let they would they were they would allow themselves to be walked over in conversation but at the same time you had this stereotype of women who talked too much.
[144] I'm not saying that the same person thought of these two things at once, but
Unknown speaker (G4WPSUNK) [145] Okay.
Dave (PS26U) [146] These are these are things which were all said.
[147] Er [...] said in in an article that women used empty language.
[148] That was a phrase he used.
[149] So what so traditional schools Thought that women did a lot of Recognized they thought that women did a lot of talking but that a lot of it wasn't really any use.
Unknown speaker (G4WPSUNK) [...]
Dave (PS26U) [150] Yeah that that was just the ideas it had.
[151] Whereas men talked more for function.
[152] Er and then to contrast this you've got like the feminist view er well it's a just reconstruct a lot of these ideas instead of saying that women's talk was diffident they said it was more considerate, and so the idea that quite often A lot of the features that are in this conversation aren't because women want to be deferential to the men they're talking to, it's that they actually want to show some consideration to to the turn-taking or the conversational style that's going on.
[153] Er in actual fact the speech styles aren't really comparable which is why you sort of get these contradictions.
[154] Er you fi What the feminist the schools says that a lot of languages minimize and trivialize interests and achievements of women and denigrate them by the way in which they use language and the way in which they talk about things.
[155] Er and similarly the syntax of languages are often said to be oppressive of women, a lot of the way that language is structured and a lot of the words that you get in a language, that's another thing that's said.
[156] there's one quite sort of ground breaking paper that obviously there's a lot in that people don't agree with but it was quite an important paper in terms of er in terms of feminist linguistics and feminism in general.
[157] It came out o it came out in nineteen seventy five.
[158] And that was by a women called Robin Lakehoff and she wrote a paper called l language and woman's place.
[159] Er the things that she said were that women used more hedges, such as I think er hedges are sort of things that get put into the conversation if al allegedly if somebody wants to give the impression that they're not quite sure, and they wouldn't w You know like I wouldn't want to say it for sure but I think that.
[160] Er and then similarly to that they er were said to seek agreement by Lakehoff she said they used more questions and more tag questions.
[161] She said, as you said, they s she said they used less swearing and more please and thank yous.
[162] And also as you said, the thing with colours, they ... were said to perhaps use less basic colour terms, so if some men were shown a bluey-green some men would say and some would say whereas a women allegedly would say turquoise or whatever.
[163] Er Now a lot of things in Lakehoff's paper perhaps people have disagreed with since then such as the things about tag questions and hedges erm I mean some studies have said that if you look at the actual modality of tag questions, like we said before, the actual function of it
Unknown speaker (G4WPSUNK) [cough]
Dave (PS26U) [164] [...] that isn't the case.
[165] But still it's an important paper that sort of broke away from a lot of the traditional thinking and led towards a lot more feminist stuff.
[166] I mean you c you can't really read wh a book on this list about women's and men, s language without finding the reference to Lakehoff in the back somewhere.
Unknown speaker (G4WPSUNK) [167] Did she actually do [...] research?
Dave (PS26U) [168] Er a lot
Unknown speaker (G4WPSUNK) [...]
Dave (PS26U) [169] A lot of hers was intuition yeah, er
Rebecca (PS26X) [170] [...] some students were given shown some s some utterances
Dave (PS26U) [171] Mhm.
Rebecca (PS26X) [172] and they had to say which were said by men and which were said by women, and erm most of the ones with tag questions were said by women
Dave (PS26U) [173] Right
Rebecca (PS26X) [174] [...] this women says that all [...]
Dave (PS26U) [175] Yes I mean in a sense that just sort of shows that a lot of people would agree with Lakehoff in the sense that they think that women use a lot of tag questions and have that speech style, erm I mean like we've been able to see, and what we can say is that men and women's language is different er and it's even possible to say in what way it's different, but the difficulty becomes when we actually want to say why those differences are.
[176] I mean some people say it diffidence some people say it's considerate so you have to then try and go a bit further beyond the actual differences to find out what the reasons behind them are.
[177] You also find different cultures have different ways of having men and women's language.
[178] Er some of the things which I won't go into in detail but a short list of some of the things which do differ among languages are interjections, particles, personal pronouns, titles, kinship terms, er nouns, verbs, noun multipliers, pronunciation.
[179] Er there's a book, which I don't think is on your list but it might be called By Thorn and Henley er which might be worth looking at.
[180] That's like full of about dozen or so papers each one I think, if it's the book I'm thinking of, is about a different community or a different language er so you might find some information about Samoa where there's a different societal hierarchical structure.
[181] Er children aren't brought up in the same maternal way as they are in in this country, and many other countries.
[182] Er similarly in I' think it's Japanese you find that men and women use different for certain things, er not because not because of terms of style just because they are the correct words to use if you are a man or if you are a women.
[183] Er lots of languages have very complex kinship terms where in English they're fairly simple, er I mean someone who is one of your parents brothers is going to be an uncle, no matter what.
[184] Whereas other communities will have father's brother and mother's brother and other ones still will then have different words depending on whether you're male or female.
[185] Er the same things happens with nouns and verbs and other things and in Ja Japanese again I think you find that the same words are pronounced differently.
[186] Er again I think you can find some information on that in Thorn and Henley.
Unknown speaker (G4WPSUNK) [...]
Dave (PS26U) [187] Right, er another situation where there's men and women differences is in multilingual communities, er you find that men and women's attitudes to varieties or language varieties or languages can carry so some men will try and avoid using one of their languages because they see it as a low prestige variety whereas some women will use it because for them it's a high prestige variety.
[188] Likewise you might find that switching and mixing will change according to status of the languages.
[189] Er there's another book which is similar to the other one in the sense that it made up of some papers by Phillips, Steel and Tants and that has some information about Mexicano in it, er and you find that some people er were giving Mexican language a low ... a low prestige rate whereas other group in the community were doing the opposite and giving a high prestige rate or certainly a less low one, er in favour of spanish a lot of the Because it was in I think it's in South America I guess, er you find that a lot of the locals were switching to spanish because it was coming the dominant language er because of societal pressures and constraints and so on.
[190] Er but a part of the community were trying to keep Mexicano and there's men and women differences in that.
(G4WPS000) [191] There's a [...] Caribbean island and apparently they just because The men their sort of ancestors invaded the island, [...] all the men and you know they [...]
Dave (PS26U) [192] Mhm.
(G4WPS000) [193] And then they kept their language [...] kept the language.
Dave (PS26U) [194] Right.
(G4WPS000) [...]
Dave (PS26U) [195] Okay did anybody get a chance to read the paper which was about [...] conversation? ...
Unknown speaker (G4WPSUNK) [...]
Rebecca (PS26X) [196] I just wondered [...] what what that came up with as it's conclusion.
Dave (PS26U) [197] W well it might be worth having a read of that.
[198] Er okay what else?
[199] Has anybody got any that I haven't haven't really covered yet? ...
Unknown speaker (G4WPSUNK) [cough] ...
Unknown speaker (G4WPSUNK) [...]
Dave (PS26U) [200] Mhm.
Rebecca (PS26X) [201] and how erm [...] but it probably got a little to do with the way groups actually organize.
[202] Whereas the boys are more [...] but the tend to give more [...] .
Dave (PS26U) [203] Right.
Rebecca (PS26X) [204] But the girls tend [...] more equal responsibility and not [...] .
Dave (PS26U) [205] What differences do you f I mean have you got any specific examples there or?
Rebecca (PS26X) [206] No [...] ... Er the girls sort of say things like [...] perhaps ask her, Do you have any [...] We could get on a bit more so they don't include themselves in what they're going to do.
[207] Whereas the boys [...] Give me the pie [...] Get off my steps or something
Dave (PS26U) [208] Mm.
Rebecca (PS26X) [...]
Dave (PS26U) [209] Right.
Scott (PS26V) [210] Is there something [...] about where one girl was using what would be boys language when
Unknown speaker (G4WPSUNK) [211] Yeah.
Scott (PS26V) [212] someone else came round to her house she was like you know get off my yard [laugh]
Unknown speaker (G4WPSUNK) [213] Yeah, [...] Yeah, so girls are perfectly capable of using those [...] when need be [laugh]
Dave (PS26U) [214] Yeah, I mean I The important thing is I think the children do recognize the differences, not that they don't notice the differences, because they're Like you say they're capable of using the other if it if it suits them.
[215] Er I mean that goes back again to the articles which you might have about the way that parents talk to their children, and you quite often find that then very very quickly the children grow up speaking in a same way as the parent of that sex talked to the them.
[216] So if a child gets spoken to in a fairly direct way by imagine a female child by her father and the same female child gets spoken to in a not so direct way be her mother, then even of this The child is likely to [...] both version, she'll grow up using female variety because she's she can affiliate herself with her mother and I mean she knows that is [...] the variety she's expected to use.
Unknown speaker (G4WPSUNK) [217] I think [...] can't really remember I don't know [...] how father would use different language he's talking to his son or daughter.
Dave (PS26U) [218] Yeah that's true as well.
[219] Er it sort of goes in four ways I mean the fathers talk more directly than the mothers whether or not it's a boy or a girl they're talking to.
[220] But they do talk more directly to boys than girls, so it's sort of graded in that way.
[221] ... Okay who wanted to talk briefly about what people are going to write about?
[222] Cos we haven't really sort of said anything.
[223] Has anyone got any I mean I you don't all need to write about the same thing or anything.
[224] Er does everyone want to do a general essay or do people want to do a s a specific thing? ...
Rebecca (PS26X) [225] General essays can turn into just regurgitating from the [...] .
Dave (PS26U) [226] Okay so is there anything you've read that you all would want to concentrate on?
Rebecca (PS26X) [227] Erm Well not that I've come across yet [...] I'd rather do something that's [...] getting the facts and then giving examples.
Dave (PS26U) [228] Mhm.
Rebecca (PS26X) [229] I want top do something on what what you noticed about [...] and what you've got [...]
Dave (PS26U) [230] Right.
Rebecca (PS26X) [...]
Dave (PS26U) [231] Right.
[232] Er let me think.
[233] I'll just go and find out when the due date for this essay is, and then Cos if it is the end of week three then I'll I'll say o I'll say it can be in in week four sometime.
[234] But if it's due in when the project originally was which was week five, then that
Unknown speaker (G4WPSUNK) [cough]
Dave (PS26U) [235] gives you a bit more time to decide exactly what you want to talk about cos if ... if it has go to be in week three or week four, then we really sort of like decide now what you're going to write about so that n Cos next week is gonna be our last meeting on this topic, so you really want to sort of give a bit of a presentation on what you're going to say.
[236] Yeah I want everyone to do like five or ten minutes next week on what they're gonna write.
[237] Okay I 'll just go and find out.
Unknown speaker (G4WPSUNK) [...]
(G4WPS001) [238] What are they supposed to be doing by the way?
Unknown speaker (G4WPSUNK) [239] What happens to the like project?
Rebecca (PS26X) [240] It got cancelled .
(G4WPS000) [241] Cancelled
(G4WPS001) [242] It got cancelled?
Unknown speaker (G4WPSUNK) [...]
(G4WPS001) [243] Oh right, didn't hear that then.
[244] [laugh] There [...] Oh that's why we're not doing it any more, so what do we have to do instead of having to do an essay [...] ?
Rebecca (PS26X) [245] Just an essay.
(G4WPS001) [246] Oh, they decided not to give us quite so much work?
Rebecca (PS26X) [247] Mm. [...]
Scott (PS26V) [...]
(G4WPS001) [248] Oh right.
[249] So we Is that why the [...]
Unknown speaker (G4WPSUNK) [250] Is that what we're meant to be doing this term, [...] tutorials?
Scott (PS26V) [251] Think so I don't [...]
(G4WPS001) [252] When do our tutorials stop?
Unknown speaker (G4WPSUNK) [...]
(G4WPS001) [253] I'm really confused.
Rebecca (PS26X) [254] We've got two more tutorials?
(G4WPS001) [255] What Oh yeah, week three and week four, and [...]
Unknown speaker (G4WPSUNK) [laugh]
(G4WPS001) [256] Yeah.
Unknown speaker (G4WPSUNK) [laugh]
(G4WPS001) [257] I'm so confused about what's going on.
Unknown speaker (G4WPSUNK) [...]
(G4WPS001) [258] I think I must be not looking at the list or not reading half the stuff.
[259] The first [...] Who put [...] dictation and and I was going, What?
[260] Where did it say that?
Unknown speaker (G4WPSUNK) [...]
(G4WPS001) [261] I shan't find the le You know the letter we got sent in the holidays?
Scott (PS26V) [262] Yeah.
(G4WPS001) [263] Well mine got sent home and I wasn't there I was here.
Lindsay (PS26W) [264] Oh that's ridiculous Sarah, yeah [...]
(G4WPS001) [265] So
Scott (PS26V) [...]
(G4WPS001) [266] So I don't know.
[267] I I mean I've got I've read it once and and now I've lost it
Unknown speaker (G4WPSUNK) [...]
(G4WPS000) [268] and it might even still be at home but I don't know where it is, I can't find.
[269] So I can't remember what it said in it.
Scott (PS26V) [...]
(G4WPS001) [270] Ooh I don't know.
[271] [...] my supervisor doesn't know anything about writing an outline [...] .
Lindsay (PS26W) [272] Yeah has that got to be in tomorrow?
(G4WPS001) [273] Yeah.
Unknown speaker (G4WPSUNK) [...]
Rebecca (PS26X) [274] Got to do a marathon tomorrow.
(G4WPS001) [275] Why?
(G4WPS000) [276] Cos he's a runner.
Rebecca (PS26X) [...]
Unknown speaker (G4WPSUNK) [laugh]
(G4WPS001) [277] Oh excellent, [...] ?
Scott (PS26V) [...]
Unknown speaker (G4WPSUNK) [...]
Unknown speaker (G4WPSUNK) [laugh]
Rebecca (PS26X) [278] [...] put the history of phonetics
(G4WPS001) [279] Yeah.
Rebecca (PS26X) [280] so [...] little blue brochure and
(G4WPS000) [281] This is the [...] study of papers written in the fifteenth century or something
(G4WPS001) [282] History of phonetics?
Unknown speaker (G4WPSUNK) [...]
(G4WPS001) [283] I'm sorry if you're interested in this then go for it.
Lindsay (PS26W) [...]
(G4WPS001) [284] You need a [...]
Unknown speaker (G4WPSUNK) [...]
(G4WPS001) [285] What're you doing for yours then ?
Scott (PS26V) [286] I'm I'm I'm a bit confused.
Unknown speaker (G4WPSUNK) [...]
Lindsay (PS26W) [287] Your doing what?
[288] Historical linguistics?
[289] Your mad! [laugh]
Unknown speaker (G4WPSUNK) [laugh]
(G4WPS001) [290] What is it though, what's historical linguistics?
[291] Is it like what we do in Old English or not?
[292] Cos that [...]
Rebecca (PS26X) [293] Yeah it is.
(G4WPS001) [294] That sounds excellent.
Unknown speaker (G4WPSUNK) [laugh]
Dave (PS26U) [295] Right it's due in week three I think.
(G4WPS000) [296] Hurray.
Dave (PS26U) [297] Er but [laugh] as far as I'm concerned if it comes in in week four, that's fair enough, but things after that then they start to get a bit upset [laugh]
Unknown speaker (G4WPSUNK) [laugh]
Dave (PS26U) [298] But I sa I said to Chris, When is it?
[299] She said, Week three.
[300] Er and I said, Give or take a few days, and she said, Yeah.
[301] So if it's inside week four then that will quite reasonable, does that sound okay?
[302] Okay has anyone had a think about what they want to do?
[303] I mean does anybody else know?
Rebecca (PS26X) [304] [...] sort of everything we've had so far's been pretty general.
Dave (PS26U) [305] Okay if any of you wanted to you could always go out some tape recorder [...] and people have a listen to it.
[306] ... But obviously if you're going to do that you'll have to do it during next week some time ... On the other hand I could give you a list of five topics and you could choose one. ...
Unknown speaker (G4WPSUNK) [...]
Dave (PS26U) [307] Yeah Oh yeah I mean there's five five things five things in men or women's conversation t to do and essay about.
[308] Say one about interrupting, one about topics, and one about perhaps interaction with children, one about er [whispering] what [...] [] ... Or you could even I mean if I did er I did a list of that you could even do the same one, you wouldn't have to do one each. ...
Lindsay (PS26W) [309] You know you got your erm tag questions?
Dave (PS26U) [310] Yeah.
Lindsay (PS26W) [311] [...] might not be one of the question in it as [...] tag questions could be
Dave (PS26U) [312] Oh yeah.
Lindsay (PS26W) [313] specific.
Dave (PS26U) [314] Okay er ... There's one title I've got written down here which I don't know if anyone's interested in.
[315] [reading] Evaluate the claim that women are more d ob Evaluate the claim that women are more observant of the prestige norms in their speech than men are. []
[316] Does anyone fancy that?
Unknown speaker (G4WPSUNK) [...]
Dave (PS26U) [317] Let's If I write down [...] ... Okay the [...] which I've just suddenly thought of were er
Unknown speaker (G4WPSUNK) [laugh]
Dave (PS26U) [318] turn-taking and interruptions and overlap and tags and tag questions, topic selection and interaction with children, which I think I just mentioned make sure you've got them down so we can forget them.
[319] Er
Unknown speaker (G4WPSUNK) [laugh]
Dave (PS26U) [320] What?
Unknown speaker (G4WPSUNK) [laugh]
(G4WPS001) [321] What?
Unknown speaker (G4WPSUNK) [laugh]
Dave (PS26U) [322] What have I done?
Unknown speaker (G4WPSUNK) [laugh]
Dave (PS26U) [323] Oh you weren't supposed to be able to read it.
(G4WPS000) [324] No, we can read it but it's ... [...]
Unknown speaker (G4WPSUNK) [...]
(G4WPS000) [325] It's just happened a lot this week.
Dave (PS26U) [326] Er so yeah, you want to do some questioney tag things?
Scott (PS26V) [327] Yeah.
Dave (PS26U) [328] Okay, I mean just ignore that one, forget I wrote it.
(G4WPS001) [laugh]
Rebecca (PS26X) [329] I mean on something like interruptions there's only so much you can say.
Dave (PS26U) [330] Er
Unknown speaker (G4WPSUNK) [...]
Dave (PS26U) [331] yeah, which is why may be general one might be more useful dependi it depends how much
Rebecca (PS26X) [332] Whereas if you do [...] interaction of children you can do it here, [...]
Dave (PS26U) [333] Mhm.
[334] Oh yeah I mean if you wanted to also link that with multicultural situation or or cross cultural or comparing it with other ones I mean that's no problem.
Rebecca (PS26X) [335] [...] language of the [...] different to [...]
Dave (PS26U) [336] Okay.
Rebecca (PS26X) [337] certain dialectic language.
Dave (PS26U) [338] Yeah well if you want to that then that's fine as well, I mean that ... Tell you what, the best thing then is can everyone put a note in my pigeon hole by Monday in other words, you've got the weekend to decide for definite.
[339] Gives us just like a provisional title of what the essay will be, on what your essay will be.
[340] Is that alright, cos then you've gone away with any ideas you've got from now which is probably none, er and then it also means that I don't have to spend next week worrying in case we get to Friday and Thursday and you're still not sure what you're doing.
[341] Is that alright?
[342] Okay if you just sort of like think of a vague title which sums up what the things are which you want to cover in the essay and if you get it to me by Monday then that that'll be quite good. ...
Rebecca (PS26X) [343] You know about [...] questions, is it questions like sort of
Dave (PS26U) [344] Well tag questions and er and questions in their own rights which i I supposed seeking agreement is the idea.
[345] Or with anything which is vaguely connected with that I mean that just sort of a coverall term for it.
Unknown speaker (G4WPSUNK) [346] [cough] excuse me. ...
Dave (PS26U) [347] Okay so does everyone, think they'll gonna be able to think of something over the weekend?
[348] Okay and then if next week somet If next week everyone can have Okay w I think what you need to do f for next Thursday is For Monday to give me [...] what you're going to do and then between Monday and Thursday, try and read anything you can about that topic.
[349] I mean you could forget this list that I gave th b that gave you, unless there's anything on it that is still relevant, but find the things yourself on that topic so that on Thursday Next Thursday you can each spend ten minutes talking about things which you've read in your topic specifically.
[350] And if anyone chooses the same topic as somebody else then you can do it together or not together or which ever.
[351] but if that can be a general idea for next week.
[352] ... Okay [...] .
[353] Is everyone okay about that? ... [...]
Unknown speaker (G4WPSUNK) [...]
Rebecca (PS26X) [354] [...] book
Dave (PS26U) [355] Er
Rebecca (PS26X) [356] where you where you
Dave (PS26U) [357] Which one?
Rebecca (PS26X) [358] On on your [...] chapter six and nine, do you know what chapter nine [...] ?
Dave (PS26U) [359] Er.
Rebecca (PS26X) [...]
Dave (PS26U) [360] Not off the top of my head, I can't remember.
Unknown speaker (G4WPSUNK) [...]
Dave (PS26U) [361] Was that was that [...] theory?
[362] Was it that?
Unknown speaker (G4WPSUNK) [...]
Unknown speaker (G4WPSUNK) [...]
Dave (PS26U) [363] I can't remember what the [...] off the top of my head, no.
Rebecca (PS26X) [364] [...] chapter six is, [...] .
Dave (PS26U) [365] Right, er
Scott (PS26V) [366] [reading] [...] as questions lead to [...] shouting and then crawling back to his [...] [] Then a little bit about language and an experiment that they did [...] .
Dave (PS26U) [367] Right, sounds like there's a bit on topics in there so it might be worth having a look at anyway. ... [recording ends]