PS4GY | Ag4 | m | (John, age 50, tutor) unspecified |

PS4H0 | Ag1 | f | (Sara, age 18, nursery nurse) unspecified |

JP4PSUNK (respondent W0000) | X | u | (Unknown speaker, age unknown) other |

JP4PSUGP (respondent W000M) | X | u | (Group of unknown speakers, age unknown) other |

- Tape 123201 recorded on 1993-04-14. Locationmerseyside: Kensington, Liverpool ( Room in private house ) Activity: Tutorial lesson Interactive teaching

John (PS4GY) |
[1] Any other problems that you're getting a bit? |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[2] Er sometimes I get some muddled up on that erm V A T sometimes. |

John (PS4GY) |
[3] Yep, okay. [4] A lot of adults just haven't got a clue at working out V A T or any sort of, since you mentioned percentages it's blurgh can't do that. |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[5] Yeah. |

John (PS4GY) |
[6] The woman at work, [...] |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[7] Yeah. |

John (PS4GY) |
[8] she you know [...] |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[9] Well everyone'll do it, everyone did go home eventually and [...] their wages, cos there was there was two of us, I told you didn't I, there was two of us that worked it out. |

John (PS4GY) |
[10] She was telling you, telling you again ten per cent |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[11] Yeah, and we all sail go home and check, just check [laugh] . |

John (PS4GY) |
[12] What what came of it, did they |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[13] They were all seven per cent, so for |

John (PS4GY) |
[14] So it was seven per cent that they were giving him not ten per cent? |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[15] Yeah, so she was a bad con merchant [laugh] |

John (PS4GY) |
[16] [laugh] That man didn't he get any more money out of it, but we, don't let him get away with thinking their giving him [...] |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[17] No, well they all said next time they'll check, because some of them just just take it for granted. |

John (PS4GY) |
[18] Well, you know a lot of p a lot of them just can't check. |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[19] Yeah. |

John (PS4GY) |
[20] They don't know, you know, how to check. |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[21] Well the others have made a bit, we just took it for granted that she was giving us ten per cent rise, and didn't bother, cos they trusted her, but |

John (PS4GY) |
[22] Okay, well this will |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[23] Though yeah they won't trust more than the once [laugh] . |

John (PS4GY) |
[24] There's a lot of that, you know, wouldn't buy a used car of him, but it's [laugh] |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[25] [laugh] . |

John (PS4GY) |
[26] yeah, though, so don't forget to have him looking after my money. |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[27] Oh no. |

John (PS4GY) |
[28] No. [29] So we'll just have a little quick think about numbers generally, and then we'll sort of have a look at the fractions, and then we'll have a look at percentages |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[30] Yeah. |

John (PS4GY) |
[31] just for a bit of revision. [32] So you start of with the normal counting numbers, and everyone's quite happy and no problem with that, so we do something like seven add, let's say we do er three add seven, and what does that come to? |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[33] Er what, ten [laugh] . |

John (PS4GY) |
[34] Okay, and seven add three. |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[35] Ten. |

John (PS4GY) |
[36] No problem when you're switching round, okay, and then we do something like erm, let's say we do ten takeaway seven? |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[37] Three. |

John (PS4GY) |
[38] Okay, and then we do seven takeaway ten? |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[39] Minus three. |

John (PS4GY) |
[40] Now, okay, when you're infants and with things like that you just say can't do it |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[41] Yeah. |

John (PS4GY) |
[42] which is right, you can't. |

Sara (PS4H0) | [laugh] |

John (PS4GY) |
[43] No, you can't do it, you know, there's there's |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[44] Sensible answer. |

John (PS4GY) |
[45] There's seven pence on the table, now take ten away, must be mad, yeah, so, anyway, we don't like saying we can't do it, in maths, so we pretend we can, and we work out this complete new system, it's all a game really, it's all a silly game |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[46] Yeah. |

John (PS4GY) |
[47] and for all these negative numbers you can't say, oh look there's minus three dogs out there. |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[48] Well they've started giving them in schools, you've got your tab you're y aim, it's like in that piece of card with one one to ten on |

John (PS4GY) |
[49] Yep. |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[50] erm, with the minus numbers on,af another piece with minus numbers on, and they use them together, they don't use them till about middle infants, so. |

John (PS4GY) |
[51] I I think that might be a bit early actually, but I know, I know they are doing it earlier and earlier, |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[52] Yeah. |

John (PS4GY) |
[53] erm. |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[54] It's just like writing though, isn't it? |

John (PS4GY) |
[55] Yeah. |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[56] I mean, the but my best posh, pushing all of four [...] , for writing, and that's not right. |

John (PS4GY) |
[57] I think, well, I think do everything as early as you possibly can, as long as the kid understands what they're doing, it's no good getting them to do things they don't understand, if they understand negative numbers do it |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[58] Yeah. |

John (PS4GY) |
[59] if they don't understand, leave it until they're a little bit older and there's other, lots of other things they can learn to concentrate on. [60] So okay, we, we invi , we invent this new system, and we say seven take away ten is minus three, okay. [61] Twelve divided by, oops, okay, we do something like erm three times four, which comes to? |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[62] Twelve. |

John (PS4GY) |
[63] Okay, and four times three? |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[64] Twelve. |

John (PS4GY) |
[65] There's no problem there, that's okay, then we things like twelve divided by three? |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[66] Four. |

John (PS4GY) |
[67] Okay, and then three divided by twelve. [68] And the answer there is well we can't do it. [laugh] |

Sara (PS4H0) | [laugh] |

John (PS4GY) |
[69] So that, this is when fractions come into it and everybody starts getting a bit ooh I'm not very sure of what I'm doing here because it's not, you know, it's not obvious, it's not very real |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[70] Yeah. |

John (PS4GY) |
[71] it's not like putting pennies on the table and counting them, put twelve pennies on and share them out between three people, no problem, but you put three pennies and share them out between twelve people. |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[72] Would it work out as minus four, I can't remember? [laugh] |

John (PS4GY) |
[73] Ah well, okay, let's see what it does come to. [74] Erm, how would we do it then? [75] Let's say we've got three pizzas, and we share them out between twelve people, how would you do that? [76] If you actually had to do it. [77] Twelve of you coming tonight, and you got, you get some big pizzas as you're working you've got loads of money now |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[78] Yeah. |

John (PS4GY) |
[79] right, so you get these from, you know, dial a pizza, and er three three of giant ones, please |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[80] Mm. |

John (PS4GY) |
[81] and there's twelve of you to share it out, so how much are they going to get each? |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[82] It's going to be two to a pizza, no |

John (PS4GY) |
[83] Well |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[84] two to |

John (PS4GY) |
[85] it's very awkward sharing three of them out, so you could start of with by just sharing one out, if we just shared one pizza out between twelve how much would you get? [86] One pizza. |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[87] One. |

John (PS4GY) |
[88] One shared out between twelve people, what fraction do you get each? |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[89] A twelfth. |

John (PS4GY) |
[90] Right, so you get a twelfth. [91] So we're saying, well there's the first pizza, lets cut it up. [92] That's your share out of the first pizza |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[93] Yeah. |

John (PS4GY) |
[94] now we'll have the second pizza, and we'll cut that up. |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[95] Three twelfths, should be. |

John (PS4GY) |
[96] Great, right you're there already, so the answer is three twelfths, and that's really, it's not much of an answer, cos all three twelfths means is three shared out between twelve, we've just written |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[97] Yeah. |

John (PS4GY) |
[98] it differently. |

Sara (PS4H0) | [laugh] |

John (PS4GY) |
[99] We've just written it differently, say ooh yeah we've done that, fine, that was no problem, so then we have another little problem and work out what three shared out between twelve would come to, wouldn't |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[100] Yeah. |

John (PS4GY) |
[101] we? [102] And we can say well that would be the same really erm |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[103] As a quarter. |

John (PS4GY) |
[104] As a quarter, right. [105] If we all got into groups of four |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[106] Yeah. |

John (PS4GY) |
[107] and say this group of four here, erm, will get this much [sound of container opening and objects being removed] shared out between us, so if there were a third as many people, if there was only one person we wouldn't need so many erm, if there was only one pizza, right, [...] |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[108] Yeah. |

John (PS4GY) |
[109] a quarter of it. [110] Erm, we might have erm let's say, now we want to say, try and work this as a percentage, so if we've got |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[111] Point seven five, wouldn't it? |

John (PS4GY) |
[112] Well, hang on, we've got one pizza shared out between four people, right, erm how many pizzas would you go , you think that was just right that, that was wonderful, we all had just the right amount of pizza, when we had a quarter, when we had one shared between the four of us |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[113] Yeah. |

John (PS4GY) |
[114] Erm, but we're having a big party tomorrow night, and we're having a hundred people in, |

Sara (PS4H0) | [laugh] |

John (PS4GY) |
[115] right now how many pizzas are we going to need so they get a quarter, how many makes a quarter? [116] How many hund how many hundredths makes a quarter, in other words? |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[117] Well four quarters equals one. |

John (PS4GY) |
[118] So this what we've, four quarters equals one, okay. |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[119] So ... |

John (PS4GY) |
[120] So as soon as you get too awkward you think, oh well, forget about fractions, and let's do it by algebra. |

Sara (PS4H0) | [laugh] |

John (PS4GY) |
[121] So what have we got? [122] We've got, we don't know how many over a hundred is equal to one over four. |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[123] Yeah. |

John (PS4GY) |
[124] Well if we don't know the answer what do we usually do? |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[125] X |

John (PS4GY) |
[126] Right, let's pretend we do, and [...] we've done it now, X over a hundred is the same as one over four, equals, so we've got an equation, we've got an equation with fractions, that's one of your favourites isn't it? |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[127] Oh yeah. [laugh] |

John (PS4GY) |
[128] So |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[129] Lovely. |

John (PS4GY) |
[130] do you want to keep the fractions there or would you like to get rid of them? |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[131] Get rid of it. |

John (PS4GY) |
[132] What are you going to do to get rid of it then, so we write it out again, X over [...] |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[133] Times it by itself. |

John (PS4GY) |
[134] Times it by what, what will you times that buy to |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[135] Two. |

John (PS4GY) |
[136] make the, make the, get rid of the hundreds on the bottom? |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[137] A hundred. |

John (PS4GY) |
[138] Right, so if you times that by a hundred you've got no choice there. |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[139] You've gotta times that by a hundred . |

John (PS4GY) |
[140] Right so you do it on other side and then work out what that comes to, so why did you multiply that side by a hundred? |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[141] To get nought. |

John (PS4GY) |
[142] To get one, to get |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[143] To get one, yeah. |

John (PS4GY) |
[144] to get that cancelling out so we've got the one on the bottom, which |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[145] Right. |

John (PS4GY) |
[146] comes to |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[147] X over one, |

John (PS4GY) |
[148] Right just X over one, which means it's going to come out to X is equal to |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[149] X times a quarter, it's more point seven five, |

John (PS4GY) |
[150] It's, no it's one times a |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[151] Oh yeah. |

John (PS4GY) |
[152] hundred. |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[153] That's right. |

John (PS4GY) |
[154] So it's one times a hundred over four. |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[155] Which is, that's a hundred over four. |

John (PS4GY) |
[156] Yes, it's the hundred, it's a hundred over four, what does that come to, so now if you had a hundred things shared out between, what would that come to? |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[157] That would be X. |

John (PS4GY) |
[158] Ah, yeah. |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[159] That stays hundred it wouldn't it |

John (PS4GY) |
[160] Well |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[161] cos one times a hundred. |

John (PS4GY) |
[162] Right, so, yeah, so it just comes to a hundred over four, good, now. |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[163] And do you cancel that down there? |

John (PS4GY) |
[164] Just cancel it down. |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[165] How many fours in a hundred? |

John (PS4GY) |
[166] Well if you can't do anything with fours in a hundred, do it in two steps, how many twos in four? |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[167] Two. |

John (PS4GY) |
[168] Right, so just divide that by two. |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[169] Er, would that be fifty? |

John (PS4GY) |
[170] That would be fifty over two. [171] How many twos in that, fifty divide twos in that? [172] Two. [173] And then do it again. [174] And you just do it again there, and |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[175] Yeah. |

John (PS4GY) |
[176] wherever that is, [...] |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[177] Yeah, that'd be one, and that'd be twenty five. |

John (PS4GY) |
[178] That's it, that's great. [179] Right, so X is equal to? |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[180] Twenty five over one . |

John (PS4GY) |
[181] Twenty five , okay, X is equal t |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[182] Yeah. |

John (PS4GY) |
[183] to twenty five, or twenty five o , X is equal to twenty five, looking |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[184] Yeah. |

John (PS4GY) |
[185] wouldn't you say that that was twenty five? [186] And what were we trying to find X for? [187] What is it over our hundred |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[188] Twenty five over a hundred. |

John (PS4GY) |
[189] So twenty five over a hundred, okay? [190] Twenty five over a hundred is equal to a quarter. [191] So if we want to find out, and twenty five over a hundred, we've got the s , it's a special fraction, and it used to have a special name for it, and we call these percentages, twenty five per hundred, twenty five hundredths, we just say twenty five per cent. |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[192] Yeah. |

John (PS4GY) |
[193] So twenty five per cent is the same as a quarter |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[194] Yeah. |

John (PS4GY) |
[195] erm, what would fifty per cent be the same as? |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[196] Half. |

John (PS4GY) |
[197] Right. [198] Okay, and that's really, that's that's where percentages fit in |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[199] Yeah. |

John (PS4GY) |
[200] they're fractions, they don't look like fractions, if someone writes down sixty per cent you think, that's not a fraction, I can't see any, [...] with |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[201] Yeah. |

John (PS4GY) |
[202] something above and something below |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[203] It's just sixty over a hundred. |

John (PS4GY) |
[204] Well it just means sixty over a hundred, |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[205] Yeah. |

John (PS4GY) |
[206] It's just a special, because it's a special fraction that we use a lot we just give it a special name and call it percentage, but any time someone says to you like er what's, let's try this one, now you were saying about point seven five and things |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[207] Yeah. |

John (PS4GY) |
[208] what's seventy five per cent as a fraction? |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[209] Er that, nought point seven five. |

John (PS4GY) |
[210] Right, as a decimal it's nought point seven five, and as a fraction? [211] That |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[212] Is seventy five over a hundred . |

John (PS4GY) |
[213] Right, that looks like the hundred, that's the sort of left over of the hundred, so it's just equal to seventy five over a hundred, and you |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[214] Yeah. |

John (PS4GY) |
[215] like to cancel that down and see what that comes to. |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[216] Divide twenty fi , it's divided by twenty five wouldn't you? |

John (PS4GY) |
[217] Right, do it by, good that's very good. |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[218] Erm, so there's three twenty fives in seventy five |

John (PS4GY) |
[219] Right. |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[220] and four. |

John (PS4GY) |
[221] Right. [222] Your mental arithmetic's getting very good, by the way, I mean, at one stage, when you first started, you'd be using using your calculator for all this, wouldn't you ? |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[223] Yeah. |

John (PS4GY) |
[224] [...] so seventy five per cent is three quarters. |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[225] Yeah. [226] Yeah, that's when I get mixed up, the it's the twenty five per cent and the seventy five per cent, anything in between 's alright, [laughing] it's just them two [] , the right, the |

John (PS4GY) |
[227] Alright. |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[228] wrong end of the scale. |

John (PS4GY) |
[229] Yeah, so it gets more complicated when you say what happens if I add on so much per cent |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[230] Yeah. |

John (PS4GY) |
[231] erm, but the first thing is to get these straight about your seventy five per cent, what we're ta , can you work out what, as a fraction, what twenty per cent would be? |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[232] Twenty over a hundred. [233] So we take away from twenty, or even tens. |

John (PS4GY) |
[234] Yeah, good, do it in tens first, so how |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[235] Is there a two, and five, two fifths. |

John (PS4GY) |
[236] How many tens in a hundred? |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[237] Oh, sorry, erm, [tut] , [...] ten. |

John (PS4GY) |
[238] Right, you were doing, you were |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[239] Two tenths, yeah. |

John (PS4GY) |
[240] doing both methods at the |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[241] Yeah. |

John (PS4GY) |
[242] same time there. |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[243] And then you can cancel that and |

John (PS4GY) |
[244] Cancel that. |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[245] be one fifth. |

John (PS4GY) |
[246] One fifth, so that's it, twenty per cent is there, one fifth. [247] What about erm, let's give you an awkward one now, let's give you an awkward one, er, plus sixty per cent, what's sixty per cent of the two? |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[248] Er, [whispering] six of something, six and sixty, ten sixes in sixty, how many sixes in a hundred [] ? |

John (PS4GY) | [...] |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[249] Am I? |

John (PS4GY) |
[250] How many tens in sixty ? |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[251] Oh yeah. |

John (PS4GY) |
[252] How many tens in sixty? |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[253] Six, that's |

John (PS4GY) |
[254] Right. |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[255] right, yeah. |

John (PS4GY) |
[256] Okay. |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[257] [whispering] Tens in a hundred, ten six tenths [] |

John (PS4GY) |
[258] Six tenths? |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[259] Three fifths. |

John (PS4GY) |
[260] Good. [261] That's it. [262] So you've got no problem with these, have you? [263] Twenty minutes, do last one. |

Sara (PS4H0) | [...] |

John (PS4GY) |
[264] Thirty five per cent. [265] What that comes to. |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[266] Erm. |

John (PS4GY) |
[267] What's going to go into thirty five? |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[268] Five. |

John (PS4GY) |
[269] Right. |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[270] Seven. |

John (PS4GY) |
[271] Good, and you know your tables. |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[272] Erm. |

John (PS4GY) |
[273] Right, how many fives in a hundred? |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[274] There's, it's going to be, twenty? |

John (PS4GY) |
[275] Yeah. |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[276] Yeah, that's right. |

John (PS4GY) |
[277] How did you do it? [278] How many tens in there [...] |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[279] Just doubled it,at yeah. |

John (PS4GY) |
[280] Right good, [...] , go for [...] , so seven twentieths. [281] Innit one, reduce any more than that? |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[282] No. |

John (PS4GY) |
[283] So any per centage I give you now, you can turn it into a fraction, couldn't you? |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[284] Yeah. |

John (PS4GY) |
[285] Yeah, so if I gave you, twelve and a half per cent. [laugh] |

Sara (PS4H0) | [laugh] |

John (PS4GY) |
[286] That's, that's, that's nasty, cos that's got sort of fractions within fractions, and they'd say, twelve point five per cent? [287] Urgh, I think I'm not going [...] |

Sara (PS4H0) | [laugh] |

John (PS4GY) |
[288] I'll do that one, I usually don't do the hard ones. [289] Twelve and a half per cent 's going to be twelve and a half over a hundred, er, oh, well, we're going to cancel, but first of all we could go the opposite way, and multiply, just to get rid of this fraction. [290] What would you like to multiply twelve and a half by so that the half disappears? |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[291] Twelve and a half. |

John (PS4GY) |
[292] Yeah, what would multiply twelve and a half by if you wanted to [...] |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[293] A half. |

John (PS4GY) |
[294] By two, yeah? |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[295] Oh, that's right, yeah. |

John (PS4GY) |
[296] Right, so what do the two twelve and a half come to? [297] Two twelves would be how much? |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[298] A hundred and |

John (PS4GY) |
[299] Two twelves. |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[300] Oh, twenty four. |

John (PS4GY) |
[301] Right, twenty four. [302] And two halves? |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[303] Two. [304] No, one, sorry. [305] Twenty five. |

John (PS4GY) |
[306] So that comes to twenty five. [307] Right, so if we multiply this by two, from the top two and the bottom, we'll get twenty five over two hundred, then you can, if you want like to cancel that down, twenty five over two hundred, what would you, what would you cancel there? |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[308] Is it just fives again? |

John (PS4GY) |
[309] Yeah, it's fives again. |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[310] So five fives are twenty five. |

John (PS4GY) |
[311] Right, and that? |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[312] So that's eighty, and there's twent , forty, so that er, five forties, that right? |

John (PS4GY) |
[313] Yeah. |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[314] So that |

John (PS4GY) |
[315] That was quick, that five forty, I was trying to work it out out because I wasn't going to cancel it that way, but that's great. |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[316] How many fives in forty? [317] Five goes into itself once, and goes into that, erm, eight times, so it's going to be an eighth. |

John (PS4GY) |
[318] Right, good so it's one eighth. [319] So twelve and a half per cent is an eighth. |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[320] Yeah. |

John (PS4GY) |
[321] Seventeen and a half per cent is something horrible, it just doesn't work out to anything reasonable |

Sara (PS4H0) | [laugh] |

John (PS4GY) |
[322] at all and it's it messes everything |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[323] Yeah. |

John (PS4GY) |
[324] Okay, so you can convert any per centage into a normal frac I mean you can leave this sort of fraction is no problem, like I say, erm, seventy eight per cent is a [...] , seventy eight over a hundred, and normally you wouldn't have to bother cancelling them down because you'd just go to use your calculator |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[325] Yeah. |

John (PS4GY) |
[326] so could you find seventy eight per cent of erm a hundred and twenty pounds? [327] And use your calculator on it if you like, what what are you going to do? |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[328] And you could write it out as seventy eighty over a hundred and twenty. |

John (PS4GY) |
[329] Is it over a hundred and twenty? |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[330] Mm, over a hundred, yeah . |

John (PS4GY) |
[331] [...] just leave that at [...] , seventy eight over a hundred, and then? |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[332] [whispering] [...] this is per centage probably. [] |

John (PS4GY) |
[333] Don't, don't use your per centage, |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[334] Er. |

John (PS4GY) |
[335] just do seventy at the moment, just do seventy eight over a hundred. |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[336] Nought point seven eight. |

John (PS4GY) |
[337] Right, and then times? |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[338] A hundred and twenty. |

John (PS4GY) |
[339] Yeah, times a hundred and twenty. |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[340] Nine, ninety three point six. |

John (PS4GY) |
[341] Ninety three pounds sixty. |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[342] Yeah. |

John (PS4GY) |
[343] Okay. [344] Now what you did when you worked out seventy eight per cent, you say seventy eight over a hundred, and you put it in your calculator, and you did seventy eight divided by a hundred, and that gave you nought point seven eight. |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[345] Yeah. |

John (PS4GY) |
[346] So you can convert per centages into these sorts of fractions or you can convert them into decimals. |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[347] Yeah. |

John (PS4GY) |
[348] Which are another sort of fraction. |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[349] Yeah. |

John (PS4GY) |
[350] See that. [351] So lets convert some per centages into decimals, because this is the trick that you were using, last time you were very good at it. [352] I said didn't I, you were very good at that, but you need to do a few, just occasionally you think wah, I can do all these now, no problem |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[353] Yeah. |

John (PS4GY) |
[354] you don't do any for a month or so, you think oh I was bombing through these, now where do how do I get started? [355] Which, you know. |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[356] I know, it seems like ages. |

John (PS4GY) |
[357] Right, so what's fifty three per cent as a decimal? |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[358] Nought point five three. |

John (PS4GY) |
[359] Didn't take long, you didn't need your calculator [laughing] for that [] . |

Sara (PS4H0) | [laugh] |

John (PS4GY) |
[360] Okay, [...] it right, erm, nought point five three, you're obviously going to do these quicker than I can write them down, so you can write them down. |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[361] Thanks. |

John (PS4GY) |
[362] It's erm, what would seventy nine per cent be as a decimal? |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[363] Seventy nine per cent? |

John (PS4GY) |
[364] Yeah. |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[365] Nought point seven nine. |

John (PS4GY) |
[366] Right. [367] Well I don't think we need to go on with any more of those do we, no |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[368] [laughing] No. [] |

John (PS4GY) |
[369] those. [370] Right now, let's think of something a bit trickier. [371] Someone buys erm let's say someone in the market, buys a a video at two hundred pounds from the wholesalers, right? |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[372] [laughing] What a mug. [] |

John (PS4GY) |
[373] A video player, you know. |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[374] Yeah. |

John (PS4GY) |
[375] Two hundred pounds, it's a good one, double decker with all sorts of, and then adds a forty five per cent mark up on it, so it starts at two hundred pounds, then adds |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[376] You've got to add forty five per cent. |

John (PS4GY) |
[377] Add forty five per cent. [378] Right. [379] So what's, how are you going to work out what that comes to? |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[380] So it'd be forty five over a hundred |

John (PS4GY) |
[381] Yep. |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[382] times, hold on, [whispering] forty five divided by a hundred times two hundred [] |

John (PS4GY) |
[383] Right. |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[384] Ninety pounds. |

John (PS4GY) |
[385] So ninety pounds is the mark up, ninety pounds is what you add to it, okay, and that was good that you worked that out, cos a lot of people just think ooh, you just add forty five pounds on [laugh] |

Sara (PS4H0) | [laugh] |

John (PS4GY) |
[386] they do, I mean that's the most common thing that people want to do. |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[387] Oh, they just do the two hundred pounds and then these people add forty five per cent in on the the [...] because |

John (PS4GY) |
[388] Right. |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[389] I've done that myself. |

John (PS4GY) |
[390] Right. |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[391] Er I've done that myself when I was in school. |

John (PS4GY) |
[392] Oh it's okay. [393] So m what how much does it come to altogether then when he's added the ninety pounds on? |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[394] Two hundred and ninety pounds. |

John (PS4GY) |
[395] Right, so we've got the ninety, plus the original two hundred, and that comes to two ninety. [396] Now you were doing it a very neat way, a quick way, of doing it all in one go, weren't you? |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[397] Yeah. |

John (PS4GY) |
[398] You remember what you were doing? |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[399] Er I done the forty five over a hundred, and timesed it. [400] Times nought point four five of eight by two hundred and got the answer. [401] The |

John (PS4GY) |
[402] That was your ninety. |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[403] Ninety. |

John (PS4GY) |
[404] But you had a way of going straight to the two ninety in one go, do you remember what that was? [...] you'd worked on it yourself, you you were doing just nicely. |

Sara (PS4H0) | [laugh] |

John (PS4GY) |
[405] What we've got here is, you know what forty five is, you don't need to do forty five divided by |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[406] Yeah. |

John (PS4GY) |
[407] a hundred, you know that, you just sort of, you've just been doing it on those out of your head, so we've got two hundred times, now what do we finish off with, we finish off with once |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[408] Yeah. |

John (PS4GY) |
[409] one two hundred, and then we add on. |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[410] The forty five. |

John (PS4GY) |
[411] Nought point four five . |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[412] Four five. |

John (PS4GY) |
[413] off two hundred, now how much have we got all together? [414] One point four five . |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[415] Four five. |

John (PS4GY) |
[416] That's two hundred, you remember |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[417] Yeah. |

John (PS4GY) |
[418] that now, |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[419] Yeah. |

John (PS4GY) |
[420] try that one then, two hundred times one point four five. |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[421] [whispering] two hundred [] two hundred and ninety. |

John (PS4GY) |
[422] So go straight to the answer |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[423] Yeah. |

John (PS4GY) |
[424] and get it very quickly without messing about, try this one then, erm, four hundred plus that, plus seventeen point five per cent, and, now then okay, let's do it this way. [425] Let's do four hundred plus seventeen per cent. |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[426] Right. |

John (PS4GY) |
[427] Erm, can you do that the quick way? |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[428] That way? |

John (PS4GY) |
[429] Yep. |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[430] So it'd be four hundred, times one. |

John (PS4GY) |
[431] Yeah. |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[432] Point |

John (PS4GY) |
[433] Point. |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[434] one seven. |

John (PS4GY) |
[435] That's it. [436] Okay. |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[437] Four hundred and sixty. |

John (PS4GY) |
[438] Right, four sixty. [439] Are you rounding it to nearest pound? |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[440] That is. |

John (PS4GY) |
[441] That's it spot on. [442] Good. [443] Should have I should have done that. [444] Right, and just, just work out what seventeen per cent, just try seventeen over a hundred times four hundred, just to check, see what it comes to, you wouldn't normally check it. |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[445] Seventeen per cent. [446] ... Sixty eight. |

John (PS4GY) |
[447] That makes four hundred. |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[448] Yeah. |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[449] So that's that's a good way of doing it. [450] Now let's, so shall I do one more of those? |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[451] Yeah. |

John (PS4GY) |
[452] Hee, hee, hee, hee, and I want you to do four hundred times, I said four hundred add seventeen point five per cent. [453] What's that going to look like? [454] ... Now that's really confusing so it quite throws you having another decimal in, doesn't it? [455] All you do is you just |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[456] One point |

John (PS4GY) |
[457] Go on. |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[458] one seven five. [459] One one seven five. |

John (PS4GY) |
[460] One point, that's it. |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[461] One, oh, seventeen five, one seven five. |

John (PS4GY) |
[462] That's it, so you just if there's any decimal points in here you just ignore it, forget about it, and you put your, because if it's a per centage you point just go in there. [463] So it should come to a little bit more than that one, shouldn't it? [...] |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[464] Four hundred and seventy. |

John (PS4GY) |
[465] Right. [466] Okay, you happy with that? [467] Because that's the bit that really sh throws people, |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[468] Yeah. |

John (PS4GY) |
[469] if it was seventeen per cent, oh I can do that it's point one seven, but when it's seventeen point five, and where does the point go? [470] I've got two [...] |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[471] Yeah, well, I was in a bo , I'm in a book club, and you have to add your own erm per centage on |

John (PS4GY) |
[472] Yeah, I see. |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[473] so I do that that way when I'm doing it to practice. |

John (PS4GY) |
[474] Good. |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[475] So, cos I do actually sit down and work it out, and me mum comes in and says, what you doing, [laugh] , so I do use that way. |

John (PS4GY) |
[476] Alright. [477] Okay, so you could do this one, erm, six hundred plus forty seven point eight, point five per cent. [478] [...] with that one, |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[479] Right. |

John (PS4GY) |
[480] How are you going to work that one? [481] ... That's it. [482] That's it. [483] Simple as that. ... |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[484] Eight hundred and eighty seven. [485] And ten pence. |

John (PS4GY) |
[486] Right. [487] And then as a quick check, just a rough check. [488] Forty seven, out, so this is about nine hundred quid, isn't it? |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[489] Yeah. |

John (PS4GY) |
[490] Roughly. [491] Forty seven point eight per cent, well it's about forty eight per cent . [492] Forty eight per cent is about fifty per cent, what's fifty per cent as a fraction? |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[493] Half. |

John (PS4GY) |
[494] So it's six hundred, plus about half, which comes to a about nine hundred, should come to a bit less than nine hundred, and it does, so that's almost certainly |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[495] Yeah. |

John (PS4GY) |
[496] right. |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[497] Add two hundred and eighty seven, and ten pence. |

John (PS4GY) |
[498] Right. [499] Now, how about take away in the middle of per centages? [500] This time we start off with six hundred and we take away thirty per cent. [501] Okay, so do that one any way you like. |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[502] So, thirty per cent of a hundred. |

John (PS4GY) |
[503] What does that come to, without doing it, what would it be as a decimal? [504] Thirty |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[505] Nought point three. |

John (PS4GY) |
[506] Right, good. |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[507] Then minus, but I'm not sure about that one. |

John (PS4GY) |
[508] Right. [509] Okay. [510] So, if you're going to find thirty per cent of six hundred first |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[511] Yeah. |

John (PS4GY) |
[512] so find out what thirty se what thirty per cent of six hundred is. |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[513] Wouldn't that be best, six hundred, no, nought point three times six hundred. |

John (PS4GY) |
[514] Right. [515] Okay. [516] So |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[517] Because that's off. |

John (PS4GY) |
[518] Right, thirty per cent |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[519] Of |

John (PS4GY) |
[520] six hundred |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[521] one hundred and eighty |

John (PS4GY) |
[522] [...] times six hundred equals, ha, carry on with that, [...] one hundred and eighty. [523] Right, so, that's how much you've gotta take away from six hundred, so you can just whack in a six hundred over the top and then take it away. |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[524] See what you mean. [525] But I want one of these. |

John (PS4GY) |
[526] Good. |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[527] [whispering] Two four er four and twenty pounds. [] |

John (PS4GY) |
[528] Right. [529] Okay, so that should come to four hundred and twenty there, you could look at it this this way, it's six hundred times, the one lot of six hundred |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[530] Yeah. |

John (PS4GY) |
[531] and you take away nought point three. |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[532] Oh yeah. |

John (PS4GY) |
[533] So it's six hundred times, what does one take away nought point three come from, to, one point [...] one point nought, take away nought point three, we'll try it on here, one point nought take away nought point three, I mean, most of the time you would be actually using the |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[534] Nought point something. |

John (PS4GY) |
[535] Right, nought point point what? |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[536] Can't have nought take away three, so |

John (PS4GY) |
[537] So what you going to do? |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[538] Borrow that one. |

John (PS4GY) |
[539] Okay. |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[540] Ten take away three is seven. |

John (PS4GY) |
[541] Right. |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[542] It's going to be nought point seven. |

John (PS4GY) |
[543] Right. [544] So, it's nought point seven. [545] So we've got six hundred times nought point seven. [546] Now that one, you're doing, sort of doing this bit, erm, you can do that bit on the calculator and then do times six hundred. |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[547] Yeah. |

John (PS4GY) |
[548] If you like that method, use it. [549] If you don't, if you're not happy and you're not very confident with it |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[550] Yeah. |

John (PS4GY) |
[551] you might be better just doing it this way, just work out what thirty per cent of it is and then take it away from the original |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[552] Yeah. |

John (PS4GY) |
[553] that's that, I mean that's fine, that'll work all the time, this way, if you practice it, you'll find it much quicker, and it's easier |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[554] Yeah. |

John (PS4GY) |
[555] and, you know, that, so let's let's try this one the the quick way. [556] Six hundred times er well hang on, six hundred take away, don't use your calculator yet, just think about this and tell me what you're going to do. [557] Six hundred take away twenty per cent. [558] How do we do that the quick way? |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[559] [whispering] Times. [] [560] ... It's going to be |

John (PS4GY) |
[561] Now you can do that on your calculator. |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[562] Yeah. [563] ... nought point eight. |

John (PS4GY) |
[564] Right, good. [564_1] And normally they won't be as easy as this, so you probably will be doing them on the calculator, so to do this you just do, erm one take away whatever the per centage is. |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[565] It's going to be four hundred and eighty. |

John (PS4GY) |
[566] Right, which is what we got when we did it the other way. |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[567] Got four hundred and twenty . |

John (PS4GY) |
[568] Did we? [569] Oh we'll do a different one |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[570] Yeah. |

John (PS4GY) |
[571] so we're doing twenty per cent. [laugh] |

Sara (PS4H0) | [laugh] |

John (PS4GY) |
[572] It's just as well. [573] Right, erm, so if we do this one, er, three hundred and sixty, three hundred and sixty take away, er, what'd twenty five per cent, let's start confusing you now, with these twenty fives and seventy fives, because |

Sara (PS4H0) | [laugh] |

John (PS4GY) |
[574] this might be where it happens, you see. |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[575] Right. |

John (PS4GY) |
[576] Three hundred and sixty take away twenty five per cent. |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[577] [whispering] Times [] ... |

John (PS4GY) |
[578] Right. [579] Try, do do that one. |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[580] Right. [581] ... That'd be a nought anyway. |

John (PS4GY) |
[582] Right. [583] We can always put noughts on the end of, after the decimal place, [...] . |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[584] So, we're going to have to borrow one from the, and then put a minus one, put that one there, leaves five, and minus one, minus two, leaves, can't do that anyway, so you're going to have to borrow this one |

John (PS4GY) |
[585] Right. |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[586] and use that as an note and bring that back to one, but you still can't do it, so that's got to be minus one |

John (PS4GY) |
[587] Ah. [588] Mm. |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[589] Urgh. |

John (PS4GY) |
[590] I think you're getting a bit |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[591] [...] well yeah. |

John (PS4GY) |
[592] involved with the minu , you were doing well on that one, with the minus one. |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[593] Well if you bring the one back you still can't do one minus two. |

John (PS4GY) |
[594] No. [595] Easy way to do it is if we've got one |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[596] If you borrow on that, unless you borrow another one. |

John (PS4GY) |
[597] Right, if we've got, let's let's say we've got one point nought nought, and we've got nought point two five, erm, borrow that one first of all, because we know we're going to need it |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[598] Yeah. |

John (PS4GY) |
[599] and that makes that |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[600] ten |

John (PS4GY) |
[601] ten lots of ten |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[602] Which leaves eight. |

John (PS4GY) |
[603] er there's ten lots of ten. |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[604] Oh yeah. |

John (PS4GY) |
[605] Okay, now we're going to take the five from nought, well we can't do that, so we'll borrow a ten, borrow a one from that ten |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[606] And leave the nine, yeah, that's right. |

John (PS4GY) |
[607] Okay, and then what does that come to, but again, you wouldn't do that this way, you'd do that on your calculator, I just want |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[608] Seven. |

John (PS4GY) |
[609] you to try that for practice in |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[610] Five. |

John (PS4GY) |
[611] decimals, cos you're supposed to know about decimals as well, so do that one on your calculator now, I know you've just, you've just worked it out the long way, so you just, and you don't even need the one point nought, you can just put one, and then take away point, nought point two five. |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[612] Nought point seven five. |

John (PS4GY) |
[613] And it's already in your calculator now, so you can just do times three sixty. [614] So you're only doing one operation. [615] Not only is it quicker, in the exam, but every time you press a button, you know, you've got a chance of pressing the wrong one, or |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[616] Yeah. |

John (PS4GY) |
[617] pressing it twice, so the lea ,bu , you know, the less button pressing you do the better. |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[618] That's,th , the way I done that there, that's because we were shown, in school, to work backwards. |

John (PS4GY) |
[619] Yep, yep. [620] That to mean that that was a good way of doing it, the way |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[621] Yeah. |

John (PS4GY) |
[622] you were doing it, but you went wrong on that, but |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[623] Yeah. |

John (PS4GY) |
[624] you don't, you know, you'll get away with doing it, as long as you can do those on your on your calculator, that's okay, but that's a that's a quick way of doing that |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[625] Yeah. |

John (PS4GY) |
[626] you could do it the long round, now I think you're okay on those. |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[627] Right. |

John (PS4GY) |
[628] I'll give you a problem, to look |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[629] Okay. |

John (PS4GY) |
[630] at, some things to work out, erm, you better write them out and then you can read your own writing then, so if I say, er, you can only in , you can just make your own notes on what you need to do the question, but computers normally costs six hundred pounds, ... but erm, Rumbelows are doing a fifteen per cent discount, ... how much do you pay for it? [631] Cos this is another thing, sometimes they'll say discount, and I get ta I get students who said to me, what does this mean? [632] What does discount mean? [633] And they don't know, so you're happy with that aren't you, |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[634] Yeah. |

John (PS4GY) |
[635] discount? |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[636] Just means money off. |

John (PS4GY) |
[637] Right. [638] Erm, and next door they've got a what, the same computer was seven hundred and fifty pounds. [639] But they're doing a twenty five per cent discount. [640] ... Which ones going to be, what they'd normally ask is, how, what, what is the difference is prices? [641] And they'd usually say, which one would you buy? [642] On the assumption that, you know, you'd buy the cheap one, might [...] and when you want to get rid of it I'll buy the dear one. |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[643] What's the difference in price? |

John (PS4GY) |
[644] Yeah, price reduction pay. [645] Erm, I think one of those is probably enough, but I'll give you another one if you want you can have |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[646] One, yeah. |

John (PS4GY) |
[647] a try that. [648] Erm, I'll make them, I'll make them all take away, sorry, discounts, because if you could do those you can do the adding ones. |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[649] Yeah. |

John (PS4GY) |
[650] I'll give you another, I'll give you one adding up one, then, okay, er one, in one shop it's erm eight hundred pound plus VAT |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[651] The computer? |

John (PS4GY) |
[652] yeah, er, well this is a different thing now, it is er something else, a different type of computer, say, in one shop it's eight hundred pounds, plus VAT ... and in the second shop it's nine hundred and twenty five pounds, but you don't pay any VAT on that one, it's already got the VAT in |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[653] Mm. |

John (PS4GY) |
[654] nine hundred and twenty five gross. |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[655] Twenty five. |

John (PS4GY) |
[656] Right. |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[657] Which is the cheapest? |

John (PS4GY) |
[658] Yeah. |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[659] Now that excluding VAT though. |

John (PS4GY) |
[660] That, this one includes. |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[661] Oh, that's right. |

John (PS4GY) |
[662] The VAT is that you |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[663] Yeah. |

John (PS4GY) |
[664] don't have to add, no VAT to be added on |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[665] Yeah, that I know. |

John (PS4GY) |
[666] it's all in the price there, because this is what you actually get very often, you're ringing some places up and they'll say, oh but you you had VAT through this week . |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[667] What's the VAT? [668] What per centage is the VAT? |

John (PS4GY) |
[669] Seventeen point five, unfortunately. |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[670] Seventeen point five . |

John (PS4GY) |
[671] Be nice if it went up to twenty per cent in the budget cos everyone could work it out more easily, |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[672] Yeah. |

John (PS4GY) |
[673] it'd cost 'em, cost them a lot more, okay . |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[674] What was the cheapest? |

John (PS4GY) |
[675] Yeah, technically, it's which is the cheaper, if there are only two. [676] How's you how's your writing doing? [677] [...] I know you haven't been doing any English and that, but erm, have you have you been doing much reading? |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[678] I've, I've just been reading here some books that I've got upstairs, and stuff, and I I I went to see one of erm Shakespeare's erm, I went to see a Midnight Summer's Dream |

John (PS4GY) |
[679] Yeah. [680] Midsummer Night's Dream. |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[681] on Friday night, the ballet, yeah. [682] And it was really good, I wa I wa I wanna see the play, |

John (PS4GY) |
[683] Right. |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[684] but I've never had a chance to see the play, and I've got I've got a full book of his works upstairs, and |

John (PS4GY) |
[685] Right. |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[686] I've read it over and over again, but I just keep on going back to it, cos I can just go on reading it for |

John (PS4GY) |
[687] You like it? |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[688] ages, yeah I do. |

John (PS4GY) |
[689] I I I I think it's a bit awkward, because some of the words he uses are, there a bit strange, and they're not in the dictionary any more, and er |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[690] Yeah. |

John (PS4GY) |
[691] they used to use words like that, you know, hundreds of years ago, but you don't |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[692] Yeah, but you just, you just figure out for yourself what |

John (PS4GY) |
[693] Right. |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[694] they mean, you've you've got a fair idea. |

John (PS4GY) |
[695] Yep, you work it out from |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[696] Yeah. |

John (PS4GY) |
[697] context. |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[698] Me friend over in Norway, she said she's she got over there and sat down and she thought, yes, she's got the Complete Works of Shakespeare, I'll have a whale of a time trying to read it, she picks up the book, it's all in Norwegian. [laugh] |

John (PS4GY) |
[699] [laughing] Oh no. [700] Well, it well, it well yeah, [] it has to be rather awkward to read that I think, I don't think I'd fancy having a go at Norwegian. |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[701] And she's picked quite a few words up, and |

John (PS4GY) |
[702] Yeah. |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[703] she's come home and that, and I I picked a few words up like, and |

John (PS4GY) |
[704] Alright. |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[705] we there er easier to say when you've got erm a bit of drift down you as well. [laugh] |

John (PS4GY) |
[706] Or a, or a Scouse accent, |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[707] Yeah. |

John (PS4GY) |
[708] Some of our [...] , I mean, er Scouse is a Scandinavian word. |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[709] Yeah, [...] . |

John (PS4GY) |
[710] [...] Scouse. |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[711] Apparently one of the the little erm boys she say, he wets himself all the time, and she turns round and she goes, he goes to er, ha ha, [...] he started himself, and you have to change all his clothes, like that and she said |

John (PS4GY) |
[712] Sounds like a nice kid. [laugh] |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[713] [laugh] he's, he's, she said he's nice, |

John (PS4GY) |
[714] Mm. |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[715] but he just, he said, she's bright, bit [...] |

John (PS4GY) |
[716] [...] he's just rebelling a bit is he? |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[717] Yeah, erm, his mum bribes him, a lot. |

John (PS4GY) |
[718] You be nice and you can have a [...] |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[719] You stop wetting yourself, if you don't wet yourself for a week I'll get you a toy, |

John (PS4GY) |
[720] Yeah. |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[721] and she said that's just not the way it's done, so she she saying to him now, if you da if you wet yourself once more you're going back in a nappy. |

John (PS4GY) |
[722] Mhm. |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[723] [laugh] So he stays dry most of the time now. [laugh] |

John (PS4GY) |
[724] How old is he? |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[725] He's only about, about three, so |

John (PS4GY) |
[726] So he's old enough |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[727] Yeah. |

John (PS4GY) |
[728] to know when he wants to go to the loo. |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[729] I know, well she said |

John (PS4GY) |
[730] Sounds as if he was doing it deliberately to get back at her, doesn't it? |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[731] Yeah, well she said, it's hard you see, cos when they go, she goes out, erm, to a place called Frognapark and they have no public toilets, |

John (PS4GY) |
[732] Right. |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[733] so you're in the end, you have to say to him, well you'll have to wet your pants, cos [laugh] because, it's like a bi bit longer the trek . |

John (PS4GY) |
[734] [...] if he's if he's three he can [...] can find a, find a drain, or just |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[735] Yeah. |

John (PS4GY) |
[736] go sit in, go in a corner here, rather than wet his pants. |

Sara (PS4H0) | [laugh] |

John (PS4GY) |
[737] Right, okay. [738] Erm, do another discount one, then erm |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[739] Yeah. |

John (PS4GY) |
[740] what's, let's say we're selling a, selling a printer, at two hundred and ninety nine pounds. [741] ... but there is a sale, and it got, they're doing forty per cent off. [742] ... Okay? |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[743] What is the price? |

John (PS4GY) |
[744] Two so it's, that's it. [745] How much do you pay in the sale? [746] ... Okay? |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[747] Do you like Bella's trophies? [748] On the erm ... |

Unknown speaker (JP4PSUNK) |
[749] ideas don't they? |

John (PS4GY) |
[750] Plus, plus you got to see how the other breeds are doing, and |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[751] Yeah. |

John (PS4GY) |
[752] everything else, don't you? [753] Right, bearings time. |

Sara (PS4H0) | [...] |

John (PS4GY) |
[754] Now this is probably a [...] . [755] Which way's North, do you know? |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[756] That way. |

John (PS4GY) |
[757] That way? [758] Okay. [759] Good, erm, right, erm so, I want you to take a bearing on me, tell me what bearing I am from where you are. |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[760] Forty five degrees. |

John (PS4GY) |
[761] Right, I'll take a bearing on you, first of all . |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[762] Now, let me see. [763] Nought, forty five, ninety, so you're ninety degrees North, which is forty five degrees away from me. |

John (PS4GY) |
[764] Er, how do you sort this out? [765] Perhaps you can help me, one day, never mind. [766] Right. |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[767] Cos I'm sat dead. [768] Yeah? |

John (PS4GY) |
[769] That's North, okay? [770] That's pointing North. |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[771] That North. |

John (PS4GY) |
[772] Right, well you're on a bearing of forty five degrees from me, right? |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[773] Yeah. |

John (PS4GY) |
[774] Now what bearing am I from you? [775] I can do the easy one, you can do the hard one. |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[776] So I'm North. |

John (PS4GY) |
[777] No, that's, the window is North |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[778] North. |

John (PS4GY) |
[779] right, so I'm going to take a bearing on you. [780] What I do, that's North, and then I sort of point round, I know it's rude to point, measure that angle, forty five degrees, okay. |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[781] Yeah. |

John (PS4GY) |
[782] You're on a bearing forty five degrees, so. |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[783] And you're forty five degrees away from me. |

John (PS4GY) |
[784] Well I'm not so sure about that, but that's where I am, there, and that's North, okay, don't forget that North is nought |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[785] Yeah. |

John (PS4GY) |
[786] always nought, and you just, so I line up the way that is, where am I? [787] I'm about here say, I line that up, I take a bearing on you, that's forty five degrees. [788] See. [789] So that's where you are, give me the one out [...] [sound of things being moved] . [790] ... Always draw that line in for North, I've just used the red line there. [791] You usually have to start in the middle of the page. [792] Okay? [793] Now, so, that up there so it's sort of facing the right way. [794] What bearing are you from me? [795] In what, what bearing, sorry, what bearing am I from you? [796] I take the bearing from me, you're on a bearing of forty five degrees, now, you take a bearing on me, and tell me where I am. |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[797] So, [laugh] |

John (PS4GY) |
[798] That's North. |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[799] Yeah. [...] |

John (PS4GY) |
[800] Okay now, from where you are |

Sara (PS4H0) | [...] |

John (PS4GY) |
[801] you're there. |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[802] North. [803] So you're forty five degrees. |

John (PS4GY) |
[804] Now first of all |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[805] I'm going round the wrong way. |

John (PS4GY) |
[806] first of all that's North, so you get nought, and |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[807] Yeah. |

John (PS4GY) |
[808] don't forget to use the outside scale, and the other thing is, make sure you've got it the right height, it's not a precise [...] |

Sara (PS4H0) | [laugh] |

John (PS4GY) |
[809] okay, there's all sorts of them, I mean you can have it the wrong nought, |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[810] Yeah. |

John (PS4GY) |
[811] the inside nought instead of the outside, or you could have it upside down or anything else, but that's pointing North, you must line it up so it points North, right, now what bearing am I from you? [812] Right. |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[813] Two hundred and twenty one degrees. |

John (PS4GY) |
[814] Okay. [815] Is that actually a forty five there? ... that was that was a forty five, near enough, now, how did you work that out? [816] Because the first thing you have to do is what? [817] Before you can take a bearing at all there's something you have to do, which is what, what am I about to do? |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[818] Draw the line North. |

John (PS4GY) |
[819] Right. [820] You must put in your North, otherwise you haven't got anything to take a bearing from. |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[821] Yeah. |

John (PS4GY) |
[822] So, nearly every point on your diagram |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[823] Should have a line going up. |

John (PS4GY) |
[824] Like so. [825] When we normally when we draw it we normally put North going straight up the page, so each person, or each ship, or whatever it is |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[826] Is a different point. |

John (PS4GY) |
[827] You'd need a different |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[828] North. |

John (PS4GY) |
[829] They're all pointing the same way, they're all pointing |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[830] Yeah, but |

John (PS4GY) |
[831] North. |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[832] But they're all from their base . |

John (PS4GY) |
[833] Right, so when you measure that, ... okay, you best put it the right way up so you can see what you're doing, and we'll turn it back in a minute. |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[834] Two hundred and |

John (PS4GY) |
[835] Hang on, hang on. |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[836] I haven't got it exactly on. |

John (PS4GY) |
[837] That's where we're taking the bearing. |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[838] Yeah. |

John (PS4GY) |
[839] Okay. |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[840] There. |

John (PS4GY) |
[841] So you just line that upon there to make sure. [842] That's lined up North, make sure that's right on the angle you're measuring, now it's about there. |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[843] Two hundred and twenty six. [844] Twenty five. |

John (PS4GY) |
[845] Two twenty five. [846] Okay. [847] All the way round there. |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[848] Yeah, I get it. |

John (PS4GY) |
[849] So, standing up a bit here, come over by the window. [850] This is so you remember it. [851] Okay, you stand there, stand, just stand about, hang on, stand about there. |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[852] Yeah. |

John (PS4GY) |
[853] Right, and I'll stand here. [854] Now, I'm going to take a bearing on you. [855] First of all where's North? [856] Right, so here's my nice straight line pointing North. |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[857] Yeah. |

John (PS4GY) |
[858] And then I point to you. [859] Now which way do I turn when I'm going to point to you? |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[860] Clockwise. |

John (PS4GY) |
[861] Good. [862] Always clockwise, so I stay [...] to forty five degrees. [863] Now you take a bearing on me, should tell me exactly what you're doing. |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[864] So I'm going to be standing on here. |

John (PS4GY) |
[865] Right. |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[866] And I should move round like that, clockwise, there. |

John (PS4GY) |
[867] Okay. [868] Do it, do it again. [869] Just do it, just, and as you do it think I'll remember this for my examine, right? |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[870] So I'm standing straighter on a straight line. |

John (PS4GY) |
[871] Right. |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[872] And I wanna turn two hundred and twenty five degrees. |

John (PS4GY) |
[873] You've got to turn clockwise, [...] |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[874] But I can't, yeah. |

John (PS4GY) |
[875] Okay. |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[876] So I've got to turn round. |

John (PS4GY) |
[877] Going, so you go, that bit when you, when you, when you get there |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[878] Back to the straight line. |

John (PS4GY) |
[879] you've got a hundred and eighty |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[880] Yeah. [881] Then [...] |

John (PS4GY) |
[882] and then you got the rest of it, so you'll always go more than a hundred and eighty, now when you, when you're pointing you're facing that way again, turn around that way again, when you're facing that way, erm especially if I'm about erm, say especially if I'm about here. |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[883] Yeah. |

John (PS4GY) |
[884] Right, take a bearing on me. |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[885] Yeah, got it. |

John (PS4GY) |
[886] So yeah, and it's really tempting isn't it? |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[887] Yes. [888] It is [...] |

John (PS4GY) |
[889] When, when, when you're there this one |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[890] Yeah. |

John (PS4GY) |
[891] varies it's only three hundred, especially if I were that |

Sara (PS4H0) | [laugh] |

John (PS4GY) |
[892] i only there, it's about that much. |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[893] Yeah. |

John (PS4GY) |
[894] No. [895] For all the way round it's got to be clockwise, |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[896] Yeah. |

John (PS4GY) |
[897] if you start, and that's what most people get wrong with erm bearings in the exam, |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[898] Yeah. |

John (PS4GY) |
[899] and they always give you a question like that where it's, you know, there's a nice little short way, which is the wrong way round |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[900] Yeah, [laugh] |

John (PS4GY) |
[901] so remember that, do when you do the bearings if you're doing some, erm examples, or you're looking through, or you're doing some revision, get up, stand up, and think, right [...] what's to think of, oh it's not there, like if I'm taking a bearing on these flowers, it's, well, just that much in it, you know, [...] |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[902] Yeah. [laugh] |

John (PS4GY) |
[903] get dizzy going all the way round, but make sure you do, you know, stand up and do it, and then [...] it'll go in . |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[904] Hey, that'd be a good one for spatial awareness, thanks for the idea, [laughing] |

John (PS4GY) |
[905] Yeah. [906] Get in [...] , why not? [907] Get them doing bearings when they're when they're two, as long as they understand |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[908] Yeah. |

John (PS4GY) |
[909] What they do, I mean just play a game, it's just a ga it's a it's a game, like sort of Simon says, try and catch them out in things, you'll say right, now you've got to point at a window, say, and then you have to point at, and you can get them all doing it, you |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[910] Yeah. |

John (PS4GY) |
[911] have to point out, Joe, and they all go [...] now, okay, now a new game. [912] You point at the window, but you must all turn round that way, turn round to your right so you're going round, then clockwise they probably wouldn't understand, but |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[913] Yeah. |

John (PS4GY) |
[914] they must keep turning round to your right until you point at them, and you mustn't go the short way, and you can play like erm, sort of version of musical chairs where you eliminate the ones who get it wrong, you know, |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[915] Yeah. |

John (PS4GY) |
[916] and they, if they go round the wrong way, oh all right you're out, now we try again, and |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[917] Yeah. |

John (PS4GY) |
[918] you point out this one, erm, they won't know what it's about at all, it's just a nice game, it's just fun, but later, when they come to do bearings, it'll se , it'll be se |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[919] They'll understand, yeah. |

John (PS4GY) |
[920] natural to them, |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[921] Yeah. |

John (PS4GY) |
[922] and they won't know what hit them, oh that'll be so naturally I'll go round that way, not the short way, why's that? [923] Why? [924] Cos you taught them early. |

Sara (PS4H0) | [laugh] |

John (PS4GY) |
[925] So you're going to remember that, |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[926] Yeah. |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[927] tell me about taking bearings, what do you do, let's give you an example, of some bearings to take, erm, and then you can tell me what you're doing, so there's a point there, and we'll call that erm, P, just to be awkward, now let's say what we'll do, this is what we'll d , this is a typical problem in fact, erm, I'll even draw that line on for you to start with, yeah, here's the problem, a ship is sailing due North, okay, and when it's at the point of A it takes a bearing on the lighthouse, so the lighthouse is somewhere, don't know where it is, but bearing of L from A is forty five degrees, and the bearing of L from B, which is when the ship has sailed on a lot further |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[928] Mm. |

John (PS4GY) |
[929] is erm, a hundred and twenty degrees, all right? |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[930] Right. |

John (PS4GY) |
[931] Now I'd like you to draw those two bearings and find out where L is, this this lighthouse, so tell me what you're doing first of all. |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[932] I'm going to put that there. |

John (PS4GY) |
[933] Right, that's a bit awkward. [934] Okay. |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[935] Erm, five and forty five degrees. |

John (PS4GY) |
[936] Right. [937] When you put it on check that the nautical, that you haven't got your thing upside down |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[938] Yeah. |

John (PS4GY) |
[939] that the nought on the on the outside is at the top, not the nought on the inside which |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[940] Yeah. |

John (PS4GY) |
[941] is down here, but the nought on the outside at the top. |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[942] Erm, [...] . |

John (PS4GY) |
[943] Right. |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[944] I'm drawing me line. |

John (PS4GY) |
[945] Right. [946] Just keep going for as long as you like on that line. [947] Way |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[948] Mm. |

John (PS4GY) |
[949] up, way up here, keep going way up right |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[950] Oh yeah. |

John (PS4GY) |
[951] with that line, because you don't know where this light house is. [952] Okay? [953] All you know is you took a bearing from A and it could be anywhere along here, could be quite close to it or it could be miles up over here. |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[954] Yeah. |

John (PS4GY) |
[955] Okay. |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[956] Erm, then when you took it, B, it was a hundred and twenty degrees, so it was the |

John (PS4GY) |
[957] Right. ... |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[958] I'm miles out. |

John (PS4GY) |
[959] Doesn't matter. [960] Er, and also when you are drawing it it doesn't matter if you keep going |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[961] Right. |

John (PS4GY) |
[962] because you've past it so it [...] that's it, so, when you were here, when you, when you, say you're in the ship, |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[963] Yeah. |

John (PS4GY) |
[964] and you're at A, let's say, let's say, North is that way, okay, and you you set this up and you have a look, you say, where's that lighthouse, oh it's on a bearing of forty five degrees, and a lot later when you've sailed sort of past the lighthouse, or the lighthouse is behind you, you take a bearing, and you still go around clockwise, |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[965] Mm. |

John (PS4GY) |
[966] it's a hundred and twenty, so it's where they, where they meet is |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[967] Yeah. |

John (PS4GY) |
[968] where the lighthouse is, and that's what they actually use it for, taking bearings on ships, and if you do that and you draw your diagram, you can work out how far you are from the lighthouse, because it might, you might have in your charts [...] |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[969] So that's what it is then, the screens just like a protractor, they there's another protractor. |

John (PS4GY) |
[970] Yeah, exactly. |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[971] er on the computer [...] |

John (PS4GY) |
[972] Yeah, yeah. |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[973] and you do it in the airports as well, I've seen, I er, me uncle works in Manchester airport |

John (PS4GY) |
[974] Yeah. |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[975] as an Air Traffic Controller, so |

John (PS4GY) |
[976] Right. [977] So let's say your uncle got you a job in the airport as an Air Traffic Controller, right |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[978] Yeah. |

John (PS4GY) |
[979] and let's say that's North |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[980] Yeah. |

John (PS4GY) |
[981] and erm you're looking, you're, let's say you turn up looking at a screen, you're actually standing up like they used to do in the old days before they had radar |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[982] Mm. |

John (PS4GY) |
[983] with a pair of binoculars, turning round looking for planes coming in |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[984] Yeah. |

John (PS4GY) |
[985] right, and you say, oh there's erm John's plane's coming in at forty five de , John's plane's coming in at forty five degrees, you see. |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[986] Yeah. |

John (PS4GY) |
[987] Erm, from, going back to [...] , okay? [988] And they expect me to co be coming in from here, |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[989] Yeah. |

John (PS4GY) |
[990] [cough] Yeah, if you don't measure it the right way, and go all the way round there and say that he's coming in on two hundred and twenty five degrees |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[991] Twenty five degrees. |

John (PS4GY) |
[992] on a bearing of two twenty five degrees, the other Air Traffic Controller might, if you tell him forty five degrees, he'll say, oh that's alright, he's way over here, he's not going to collide with this Seven Four Seven that's coming in this way, |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[993] Yeah. |

John (PS4GY) |
[994] and so it's very important that you give the bearing correctly. |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[995] Yeah, he's forty five degrees, coming in at forty five degrees from me, that's what they should say. |

John (PS4GY) |
[996] No, what they should say, is we only ever |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[997] No, yeah, well two hundred and twenty five degrees, yeah. |

John (PS4GY) |
[998] they just say two hundred and twenty five, cos if you start saying forty five degrees from |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[999] From me, yeah. |

John (PS4GY) |
[1000] me it's going to get very confusing |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[1001] Yeah. |

John (PS4GY) |
[1002] so we have a nice simple rule. [1003] You always point to North, always go clockwise |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[1004] Subs have got them as well, haven't they? |

John (PS4GY) |
[1005] Yes. |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[1006] Yeah. |

John (PS4GY) |
[1007] Subs and ships. [1008] You might here on erm, ah if you've seen old war film there's someone in a a ship, and he'll say, torpedo, bearing |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[1009] Yeah. |

John (PS4GY) |
[1010] [...] three six, he'll say bearing two seven O, now if he says torpedo bearing two seven O, show me where the, show me where the torpe , that's that's the ship there, the S, where would the torpedo be coming from? |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[1011] So, two seven O, it'd be coming from there. |

John (PS4GY) |
[1012] Yep. [1013] So when he knows exactly where the, where it's coming in from |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[1014] Yeah. |

John (PS4GY) |
[1015] He knows how to take avoiding action. [1016] But if, if you were here, and you're on the bridge, and you get it's your turn to look out for torpedoes, and |

Sara (PS4H0) | [...] |

John (PS4GY) |
[1017] you're getting a bit panicky, and you measure it round this way instead. |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[1018] Why do they have the numbers going round anticlockwise as well? |

John (PS4GY) |
[1019] Well that's so you can work out, erm, if you if you look at any two numbers they add up to a hundred and eighty, |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[1020] Oh yeah. |

John (PS4GY) |
[1021] on this side, erm, they have them so you can work out the reverse bearings, but it's it's better not to use those, just, stick with the out |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[1022] Cos it confuses m , sometimes it confuses me. |

John (PS4GY) |
[1023] It does, just stick with the outside ones |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[1024] Yeah. |

John (PS4GY) |
[1025] and go around there, well, going back to this one, you're bearing, right, you're at S and you take a bearing on this ship, J, and the bearing is two hundred and twenty five degrees, now the one ship at J takes a bearing on you, and he gets forty five degrees, well that angle, there, is always the same as that one |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[1026] Yeah. |

John (PS4GY) |
[1027] that's always forty five degrees. [1028] So. |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[1029] Yeah, cos we done that in Pythagoras. [1030] Something similar |

John (PS4GY) |
[1031] Yeah. |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[1032] with erm the hill top, and I drew the other triangle, |

John (PS4GY) |
[1033] Right, the angles outside? |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[1034] Yeah. |

John (PS4GY) |
[1035] Adding up to one hundred and eighty. [1036] The one outside the triangle there. [1037] Right. [1038] So, if I take this bearing, this is a g very common question they have in G C S E, take a bearing from J and it's forty five degrees, right? [1039] Now that is the the reverse bearing, the back bearing, |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[1040] And that'll be right on, right on [...] |

John (PS4GY) |
[1041] And that would be, that would be, so if we're doing it this way, right, let's let's erm, forget about where we are sitting at the moment now, and just look we're in a helicopter looking at these ships now, so this one radios you in the helicopter and says, that ship S is on a bearing of forty five degrees |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[1042] Yeah. |

John (PS4GY) |
[1043] Right, and then this ship, S, radios the helicopter and says, this ship J is on a bearing of, and let's say, let's say, he does it the wrong way round, is on a bearing of forty five degrees, |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[1044] Yeah. |

John (PS4GY) |
[1045] well you think that can't be right, because, can you work out what this bearing's going to be, and instead of measuring it could we have calculated it? [1046] That's always the same as that, that angle is the same as that angle. |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[1047] Well wouldn't it be on the reverse bearing. [1048] The two hundred and twenty five? |

John (PS4GY) |
[1049] It is the two hundred and twenty five, but how could we calculate that from just looking at, if they just told us and you didn't use the protractor. [1050] That's forty five, how much is just that much of it? |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[1051] Ninety. |

John (PS4GY) |
[1052] Is it? [...] |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[1053] I mean, no, a hundred and eighty. |

John (PS4GY) |
[1054] Right so that bit of it is a hundred and eighty, and that bit will be forty five, |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[1055] Yeah, so |

John (PS4GY) |
[1056] so what |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[1057] a hundred and eighty |

John (PS4GY) |
[1058] Add forty five, okay . |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[1059] Five, yeah. |

John (PS4GY) |
[1060] So if we did it this way, erm, let's pick an actual bearing, so that we get it right. [1061] So this time if that was seventy? [1062] ... So what's going to be? [1063] [...] ... So there's A, and there's B, we're going to take a bearing here, it's the North still, take a bearing here, from North, measure it round, seventy degrees. [1064] Now what I want to know is could you work out, without measuring it, could you work out what that one will be? |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[1065] A hundred and eighty plus seventy degrees. |

John (PS4GY) |
[1066] That's it. [1067] And this is a very common question. [1068] Don't forget the big thing is about the bearing of and from, the bearing of B, and everyone must have gone and put the p put the protractor on B |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[1069] Yeah. |

John (PS4GY) |
[1070] so the bearing of B, from A, and from is where we start from. |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[1071] Yeah. |

John (PS4GY) |
[1072] So if I say the bearing of B from A is seventy degrees then that's where we start from. [1073] Where we put our protractors and start from, at seventy degrees, and then they'll say, so the bearing, the bearing of B from A is seventy degrees, and then they'll say, what is the bearing of A from B? [1074] And that's a very common one they give. |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[1075] And then you just put a hundred an , a seventy, plus a hundred and eighty, |

John (PS4GY) |
[1076] Right, so if we're in a helicopter up here, and this ship says the bearing is seventy five degrees, right? |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[1077] Mm. |

John (PS4GY) |
[1078] And this ship says the bearing is? [...] just check that one is two hundred and fifty three degrees, right? |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[1079] Yeah. |

John (PS4GY) |
[1080] Now what that tells us is they can't both be right, |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[1081] Mm. |

John (PS4GY) |
[1082] because this should be, if this one's right it'll be a hundred and eighty at seventy five |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[1083] Plus the five. |

John (PS4GY) |
[1084] which is how much? |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[1085] [whispering] Five, it's fifteen, [] er two hundred and fifty five. |

John (PS4GY) |
[1086] Two hundred and fifty five, and if we did it to he's absolutely right, erm then this one should have given his bearing as two fifty three minus seventy, which comes to, what does that come to? [1087] Minus thr , sorry, minus one eighty. [whispering] [...] . [] |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[1088] Two five three. |

John (PS4GY) |
[1089] Which is two five three, so if you're in the ship you can have them you can do, work this out from the bearings they both give you and check that they're roughly right, they won't be exactly right |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[1090] Mm. |

John (PS4GY) |
[1091] cos the ships rolling like this, and someone's trying to take a bearing, it's quite difficult at sea, but they get a, they do, they get very good at tacking fairly accurately. |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[1092] Mm, |

John (PS4GY) |
[1093] Now, haven't you got questions on bearings that we did, haven't you, and notes on it? |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[1094] Yeah, it wa , we've actually done that one today, we've done that one. |

John (PS4GY) |
[1095] Whi , using forty five degrees? |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[1096] Yeah. |

John (PS4GY) |
[1097] Yeah, and that one with seventy. |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[1098] Yeah. |

John (PS4GY) |
[1099] And forty five degrees is one [...] , try it, try it, do that one again with forty degrees. |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[1100] Right. |

John (PS4GY) |
[1101] And, and draw it, and stand up and think how you're going to do it, and maybe you sort of, you know, sit here or something, when I've gone and face the window and say, that's North, and I must make sure I get it set up, get this the right way up and [...] , |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[1102] Yeah. |

John (PS4GY) |
[1103] you've got one of these, haven't you? |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[1104] Yeah. |

John (PS4GY) |
[1105] Yeah. [1106] Okay, so try that with erm, twenty five forty, erm, a hundred and fifty, and two hundred and ten. [1107] All different angles for in there, and you just sort of draw it and work out what the other one is, calculate it first, alright, That's, that's A from B, I'll move that A and B as well. [1108] Okay? |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[1109] Yeah. |

John (PS4GY) |
[1110] This is bearing of A, this one B, from is where you start. [1111] For each one of these calculate the bearing of B from A, okay? |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[1112] Yeah. |

John (PS4GY) |
[1113] And when you've calculated it, draw some of them, and erm just check them |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[1114] Yeah. |

John (PS4GY) |
[1115] and see they come okay, because you need to do the drawing as well to sort of get you used to |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[1116] Yeah. |

John (PS4GY) |
[1117] you know, getting used to the feel of it, it's alright just talking about it or just doing some calculations and just thinking, oh yeah, I can do that now, but you can't beat really getting down and drawing the pictures, and |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[1118] Yeah. |

John (PS4GY) |
[1119] playing with it and stuff like, I think I should have gone a while ago, actually, |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[1120] Yeah. |

John (PS4GY) |
[1121] other things to get caught up with, er, four o'clock, got to be over in Toxteth fairly soon. |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[1122] There's your ten pounds. |

John (PS4GY) |
[1123] Thank you very much. [1124] Your ten pounds take away nine pounds is minus four hundred pounds, which means you owe me four hundred pounds . |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[1125] [laugh] You wish. |

John (PS4GY) |
[1126] It's five hundred is it? |

Sara (PS4H0) | [laugh] |

John (PS4GY) |
[1127] It might be nothing at all. [1128] Don't go away, don't go away. [1129] Aargh, |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[1130] Oh. |

John (PS4GY) |
[1131] I knew I'd do that, bottoms fallen out of my little, my little world, |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[1132] Thanks. |

John (PS4GY) |
[1133] here's some coins for playing with, for doing erm, adding up and takings aways with the younger ones, and I keep those in there, and they're all over the bottom of that bag. |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[1134] I used to have them little plastic ones, that [...] |

John (PS4GY) |
[1135] They're they're fine, but I think y you can't beat real ones |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[1136] Yeah. |

John (PS4GY) |
[1137] because, you know, erm, most kids these days, especially by the time they're nine or ten, they're used to having their own pocket money, and then you, and they say they can't do any maths at all, and you say well, if you had a fifty pence and you bought something for twenty four, how much change ? |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[1138] Yeah, cos he knows he went down the shop, yeah. |

John (PS4GY) |
[1139] Phworgh, no problem. |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[1140] Yeah. |

John (PS4GY) |
[1141] Yeah. [1142] And they can do maths, they just, it's just that when you call it maths they say they can't do it. |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[1143] Yeah, it's like the little ones, they the, the, the, erm, they handle all sorts, and when you comes actually down to seeing it on paper, you ke , it's alright if they're just counting it there in the hands and stuff. |

John (PS4GY) |
[1144] But that's, I mean that's what you've got to start from, from doing the counting and then getting to right it out, how much have got there? [1145] Twenty five P, write it down. [1146] How much have you got? [1147] Two ten P s, and one five, or something. [...] |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[1148] Have you used all them Ladybird like er matching numbers now in the scho in the schools and that, and you've actually got to sit there and count them, so. |

John (PS4GY) |
[1149] Yeah. |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[1150] Some o , to some of them it just bores them stiff. |

John (PS4GY) |
[1151] Well I think most kids are interested in counting er if it's something that they're interested in, but if they're counting, erm, you know, little dots on a bit of paper or something, it's boring, but if they're |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[1152] I know it |

John (PS4GY) |
[1153] counting butterflies on [...] |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[1154] There's a little boy in the nursery, and the the nursery teacher says he's he's thick, for a, he's four, and he's with the younger ones, and she said he's thick because, erm, he just can't be bothered, but what it is, he knows it, |

John (PS4GY) |
[1155] Yeah. |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[1156] and he thinks well why should I waste my time? |

John (PS4GY) |
[1157] Right. |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[1158] Doing it for her when I know I already know it. |

John (PS4GY) |
[1159] So he's not not at all thick, he's just bored, and she's not spotting that and |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[1160] Yeah. |

John (PS4GY) |
[1161] giving him something to |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[1162] he's a lot |

John (PS4GY) |
[1163] to stretch him . |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[1164] he's erm he's a lot more intelligent than he lets on, and he's one of these that lets all the others push him down, where at the end of the day he can turn round |

John (PS4GY) |
[1165] And gets what he wants doesn't he ? |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[1166] Yeah, because he's the smart one. |

John (PS4GY) |
[1167] Right. |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[1168] and he knows, he knows his little w his, they how to work on people, [laugh] |

John (PS4GY) |
[1169] So he's not at all daft, eh? |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[1170] No. |

John (PS4GY) |
[1171] He knows what's going on and how to make it work . |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[1172] Smar smart alec. [laugh] |

John (PS4GY) |
[1173] Did you, did you try that erm joining the the dots up on a on a graph that you were going to do last time? |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[1174] Oh, no, I didn't get, no I didn't get a chance, no. |

John (PS4GY) |
[1175] Oh, works very well. [1176] Tell you what I will do, have a go cos I want you to try that cos it's nice, erm, when you've done it, one day |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[1177] Yeah. |

John (PS4GY) |
[1178] I promise, but not at the moment cos it needs a lot of setting up, I'll get myself to set my computer up specially to make those disks |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[1179] Yeah. |

John (PS4GY) |
[1180] because I can't do them on my main one, I'll have to power up another one and getting wires between them and |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[1181] Yeah. |

John (PS4GY) |
[1182] stuff, erm, I'll I've got a disk that does interesting little joined up lines, and there's one where you can just put numbers in yourself and it'll draw all sorts of pictures for you |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[1183] Oh, yeah. |

John (PS4GY) |
[1184] and you can probably do, I don't know if you could do print screen, no, if you got, you'll have to learn graphics, but anyway, I'll tell you about that when, when you do it, my numbers in there, take all the rubbish away. [1185] See you |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[1186] It's nothing compared to what we've got in the house. [laugh] |

John (PS4GY) |
[1187] See you next week. |

Sara (PS4H0) |
[1188] Yeah. [recording ends] |