BNC Text JP8

Training session. Sample containing about 2721 words speech recorded in educational context

3 speakers recorded by respondent number C580

PS4HA X u (No name, age unknown, lecturer, no further information given) unspecified
JP8PSUNK (respondent W0000) X u (Unknown speaker, age unknown) other
JP8PSUGP (respondent W000M) X u (Group of unknown speakers, age unknown) other

1 recordings

  1. Tape 123701 recorded on 1994-01-13. LocationGreater London: Finchley () Activity: training session

Undivided text

(PS4HA) [1] Has your group finished those sentences?
Unknown speaker (JP8PSUNK) [2] No.
Unknown speaker (JP8PSUNK) [3] Erm.
Unknown speaker (JP8PSUNK) [...]
Unknown speaker (JP8PSUNK) [4] Yes.
Unknown speaker (JP8PSUNK) [...]
(PS4HA) [5] Pat, has your group finished those sentences?
Unknown speaker (JP8PSUNK) [6] [...] I've finished mine, but I don't know [...]
Unknown speaker (JP8PSUNK) [...]
(PS4HA) [7] Right.
[8] [laugh] Mark.
Unknown speaker (JP8PSUNK) [9] Yes, what, [...]
(PS4HA) [10] Would you like to do number one.
Unknown speaker (JP8PSUNK) [11] Er,
Unknown speaker (JP8PSUNK) [...] [laugh]
Unknown speaker (JP8PSUNK) [12] I put in between the n and s on fisherman's.
(PS4HA) [13] Yeah.
Unknown speaker (JP8PSUNK) [14] Er, E s, e and s of cottages.
Unknown speaker (JP8PSUNK) [15] Yeah.
Unknown speaker (JP8PSUNK) [...]
Unknown speaker (JP8PSUNK) [16] Er, and one between searchlights [...] t and s.
(PS4HA) [17] T and s of searchlights, the n, the n and the s of fisherman's, the e and the s of cottage's, and the t and the s of searchlight's.
[18] Put your hands up if you got it right.
Unknown speaker (JP8PSUNK) [...] [laugh]
(PS4HA) [19] Let that me a lesson to you.
Unknown speaker (JP8PSUNK) [...]
(PS4HA) [20] Ben, number two.
Unknown speaker (JP8PSUNK) [21] [laugh] serves you right.
Unknown speaker (JP8PSUNK) [22] Yeah, one between n and s of men's.
(PS4HA) [23] Shh.
[24] One between n and s of men's.
Unknown speaker (JP8PSUNK) [25] And between n and s of children's, and d and s in ward's.
(PS4HA) [26] Right.
[27] N and s and men's, n and s in children's and d and s in wards.
[28] Put your hands up if you got that right.
Unknown speaker (JP8PSUNK) [...] [laugh]
(PS4HA) [29] Oh dear, it would erm [...]
Unknown speaker (JP8PSUNK) [laugh]
(PS4HA) [30] [...] manage to confuse you utterly,
Unknown speaker (JP8PSUNK) [31] Yes, you did, so.
(PS4HA) [32] Erm, right.
[33] Would you like to do number three.
Unknown speaker (JP8PSUNK) [34] [...] Erm, after the s in books, erm, after the s in libraries and after the s in librarians.
(PS4HA) [35] Yeah, I think it's definitely got to be after the s in books, as it sounds as if there's more than one of them.
[36] Libraries is obviously plural so it's got to go after the s.
[37] And librarians depends on whether you think there's one or more than one, and it's not clear, in the sense as you say.
Unknown speaker (JP8PSUNK) [38] Did you take [...]
(PS4HA) [...]
Unknown speaker (JP8PSUNK) [39] [...] hang on, could you do the same with fishermen's, could they not have an apostrophe after the s.
(PS4HA) [40] No.
[41] Fishermen
Unknown speaker (JP8PSUNK) [42] [...] more than one.
(PS4HA) [43] Men is clearly plural, isn't it.
Unknown speaker (JP8PSUNK) [44] So [...]
Unknown speaker (JP8PSUNK) [45] So what about cottages.
(PS4HA) [46] Because when the word doesn't end in s, when the plural doesn't end in s, as it doesn't in men, women and children, and sheep.
[47] You er, put an apostrophe and then you put an s on.
Unknown speaker (JP8PSUNK) [48] I see.
(PS4HA) [49] It's when the plural word doesn't end in s.
Unknown speaker (JP8PSUNK) [50] What about cottages.
(PS4HA) [51] Cottages.
[52] Let's see
Unknown speaker (JP8PSUNK) [53] Put an apostrophe after the s,
(PS4HA) [...]
Unknown speaker (JP8PSUNK) [54] So e apostrophe
(PS4HA) [55] After the s.
Unknown speaker (JP8PSUNK) [56] Yes.
(PS4HA) [57] 'Cos there's more than one of them, isn't there.
Unknown speaker (JP8PSUNK) [58] That's what we did, that's what we did.
(PS4HA) [59] Oh, did I say that was wrong.
Unknown speaker (JP8PSUNK) [60] But you said that was wrong.
(PS4HA) [61] Oh, sorry, [...]
Unknown speaker (JP8PSUNK) [...]
(PS4HA) [62] Number one it should be erm,
Unknown speaker (JP8PSUNK) [63] After the s.
(PS4HA) [64] Yes, after the s, this is obvious, more than one cottage, sorry [...]
Unknown speaker (JP8PSUNK) [...]
Unknown speaker (JP8PSUNK) [65] What about, what about the children's.
Unknown speaker (JP8PSUNK) [66] What's that, [...] plural isn't it.
Unknown speaker (JP8PSUNK) [67] That's apostrophe s.
Unknown speaker (JP8PSUNK) [68] Yes.
(PS4HA) [69] Yes,
Unknown speaker (JP8PSUNK) [70] Yeah, I'm with you.
(PS4HA) [71] yes, that's right.
[72] Yeah.
[73] Erm, right, who'd like to do the last one, Tracey.
Unknown speaker (JP8PSUNK) [74] Erm, both [...] teachers, apostrophe between the r and the s of teachers.
Unknown speaker (JP8PSUNK) [75] Yeah.
Unknown speaker (JP8PSUNK) [76] [...] apostrophe between the d and s of husband.
Unknown speaker (JP8PSUNK) [77] [...] I wouldn't agree.
Unknown speaker (JP8PSUNK) [78] I wouldn't know.
Unknown speaker (JP8PSUNK) [laugh]
Unknown speaker (JP8PSUNK) [79] [...] I think it's
(PS4HA) [80] Go on [...] what do you think.
Unknown speaker (JP8PSUNK) [81] I think er, it's apostrophe after the s of classes, after the s in teachers, and after, after the s in husbands and after the s in schools ... 'cos they're all plural [...] plural.
Unknown speaker (JP8PSUNK) [82] Classes is [...] isn't it.
(PS4HA) [83] Cla yes, classes yes, isdefinitely plural, isn't it, because the singular is [spelling] C L A S S []
Unknown speaker (JP8PSUNK) [84] And it's e apostrophe.
Unknown speaker (JP8PSUNK) [85] And it's more than one teacher, because it's [...]
Unknown speaker (JP8PSUNK) [...]
(PS4HA) [86] Helen, Helen hang on.
(PS4HA) [87] Classes, is a plural word that ends in s, so you put the apostrophe after the s.
Unknown speaker (JP8PSUNK) [88] Yeah.
(PS4HA) [89] Right Helen, plural word that ends in s.
[90] The apostrophe goes after.
Unknown speaker (JP8PSUNK) [...]
(PS4HA) [91] When the word, the words plural, that does not end in s, and there's just a minority of cases, then it's apostrophe followed by s.
Unknown speaker (JP8PSUNK) [...]
Unknown speaker (JP8PSUNK) [92] Mm
(PS4HA) [93] Okay.
[94] Got it.
[95] [laugh] Right, classes is definitely plural, so it's definitely got to go after the s, and therefore it sounds as if teachers is going to be plural, doesn't it.
Unknown speaker (JP8PSUNK) [96] 'Cos there's more than one.
(PS4HA) [97] Sounds as if we're talking about more than one teacher.
Unknown speaker (JP8PSUNK) [98] [...] more than one wife, anyway, can you.
(PS4HA) [99] Hopefully not.
Unknown speaker (JP8PSUNK) [laugh]
Unknown speaker (JP8PSUNK) [...]
(PS4HA) [100] Well, hang on a second, we're not talking about putting an apostrophe on wives are we, for goodness sake.
Unknown speaker (JP8PSUNK) [101] No.
(PS4HA) [102] Because they don't own anything.
Unknown speaker (JP8PSUNK) [laugh]
(PS4HA) [103] So let's put an apostrophe on the s of teachers ... and then husbands is clearly plural because the teachers were plural, and we th , we talking in plurals, so after the s in husbands.
[104] With school, erm, it depends on whether you're talking about, were they're both teachers in one school, in which case, if you understood that way, it's the apostrophe before the s, and if you understood it, er, teachers in several schools, then you'd have put to the apostrophe after s.
Unknown speaker (JP8PSUNK) [cough]
(PS4HA) [105] I should think it sounds as if they're both teaching in the same school, myself,
Unknown speaker (JP8PSUNK) [106] Yeah.
(PS4HA) [107] I I would have put the apostrophe between the l and the s, but erm, I'd be prepared to, I'd be persuaded that it wasn't crystal clear.
[108] Okay.
[109] Now the two little things in boxes at the bottom, just reiterates what I've said.
[110] It's with an apostrophe is an abbreviation for it is, because you never, and I I think those three little rules there only apply only nouns have an apostrophe, pronouns never have an apostrophe and it's only nouns ending in s, have an apostrophe and it's only when they own the thing that follows, except when they, when they don't end with an s, but [...] you know the exception of men's, women's, children's and sheep.
[111] Er, are, exceptions.
[112] Right, well I didn't expect it to take that long to [...] the apostrophe.
[113] Erm, you must be honest about this, er, is anybody feel clearer about these, the apostrophe, than they did half an hour ago.
Unknown speaker (JP8PSUNK) [114] Yes.
(PS4HA) [115] Would you be kind enough to just raise your hand in the air if you feel a little bit clearer.
[116] You can be honest and put your hand in the air if you feel more confused than ever.
[117] Stuart does.
Unknown speaker (JP8PSUNK) [118] No [...]
Unknown speaker (JP8PSUNK) [...]
(PS4HA) [119] But, I I don't really think I could make it any clearer, but you need to, perhaps take it home and go through it again, and think about it and see if you can understand it, you know, in the quiet of your own bedroom, plus [...] is a very useful time to try and learn things.
[120] If you turn over.
Unknown speaker (JP8PSUNK) [121] [...] it was heart searching [...]
(PS4HA) [122] Turn over.
[123] This is just, I'm not going to through these exercises, this is an exercise on the apostrophe to show, not possession this time, but that letters have been left out of words.
[124] I think you know all this.
[125] You you you drop the letter and put the apostrophe where the letter would have been, had you not removed it.
[126] So, all that you need to think, to remember things like, don't, is that it's do not, and you've got to put the apostrophe in where the letter's been missed.
[127] So ... if you follow that, it shouldn't, shouldn't cause you a problem.
[128] Erm, but the one thing to remember is when your writing a formal essay, in an exam situation, don't use the shortened form.
[129] The only time you're likely to be using it, is, if your writing an essay, where you going to use conversation, to make it realistic, people do abbreviate in a conversation, or if you're asked to write in an informal way.
[130] So those, the only, the only exceptions.
[131] So, generally avoid using contractions in an exam essay, unless you're asked to it in an informal way.
[132] Okay, that's the apostrophe.
[133] The next sheet is on commas.
Unknown speaker (JP8PSUNK) [...] [talk in background]
(PS4HA) [134] Commas ... Right, are you ready for quick gallop through commas.
[135] Martin, are you ready
Unknown speaker (JP8PSUNK) [...]
(PS4HA) [136] Good, people use commas much too often, and some they don't use them at all.
[137] But especially when they put them at the end of a sentence where they should be putting a full stop.
[138] There are some, however, sorry, there are, comma, however, comma, please note, some situations where commas are necessary if you're going to write clearly.
[139] First they are used to show a pause, between parts of a sentence, which makes it [...] for example, when you start off with a subordinate clause, after I'd cashed my Giro comma I went to the shops and bought some food, or, because of the derailment comma all the trains were running late.
[140] [...] technical, to think of it technically, it's when your sentence starts with a subordinate clause.
[141] When it comes to the end of that subordinate clause, you need a comma to separate it from the main clause, which is then going to follow.
[142] Another use of the comma, is on either side of a word or phrase which could be left out of a sentence.
[143] For instance, my sister comma who works in a green grocers comma said she saw her with Kim last night.
[144] So, the fact that who works in the green grocers is just a bit of additional information, it's not necessary for the the main part of the sentence, you can take it out and it's not going to take, make any difference to the construction or the meaning of the sentence, it's a bit of additional information.
[145] Or, you will need comma, amongst other things comma, three bricks and a length of rope.
Unknown speaker (JP8PSUNK) [laugh]
(PS4HA) [146] What you have to remember is [laugh] that you need a pair of commas and not just one.
[147] Some words are often used between commas like he comma, too comma, was embarrassed and this one in particularly, please, tomorrow comma, however comma, snows is expected, and don't try to use however as a conjunction, 'cos it isn't.
[148] And it will, if you, at the beginning of the sentence, however, it's got a comma after it, before you go on to the rest of the sentence.
[149] If you use it in the middle, it's got to have commas both sides of it.
Unknown speaker (JP8PSUNK) [150] Is it the same for therefore.
(PS4HA) [151] The same thing happens with therefore, and the same thing happens with nevertheless.
[152] You also use commas between items in a list.
[153] You bought three apples comma, a banana comma, a bicycle pump and a walking stick, and you don't need the comma ... when you use and.
[154] So it's commas between the items on the list, except for the last two where you're using and.
[155] Okay.
[156] Got it.
[157] Now try the sentences ...
Unknown speaker (JP8PSUNK) [cough]
(PS4HA) [158] and see if you can agree as a group, on where you're putting them, and don't be too influenced by people that might be wrong ...
Unknown speaker (JP8PSUNK) [159] But I have been up all night comma, [...] too tired, but I was really homesick.
(PS4HA) [160] [...] really there's one after night, but you don't need after, one after tired, just carry straight on.
Unknown speaker (JP8PSUNK) [161] But it's a normal [...]
Unknown speaker (JP8PSUNK) [...]
(PS4HA) [162] James, it must be your turn to ...
Unknown speaker (JP8PSUNK) [163] Since my operation I haven't looked back comma, although maybe because I can't move my leg.
Unknown speaker (JP8PSUNK) [164] Ah.
(PS4HA) [165] [...] And erm, number three.
Unknown speaker (JP8PSUNK) [166] As I missed the train comma, I decided to catch the next one which was in an hour's time.
(PS4HA) [167] Has anyone got a comma after one.
Unknown speaker (JP8PSUNK) [168] Yeah.
Unknown speaker (JP8PSUNK) [169] Yeah.
Unknown speaker (JP8PSUNK) [170] I got, oh [...] I sort of like to use two and then cross out the wrong one.
Unknown speaker (JP8PSUNK) [laugh]
(PS4HA) [171] Going to write a little note to the examiner, aren't you.
[172] Please examiner, please [...] whichever was right.
[173] I like that one.
[174] Erm, I think I'd be inclined to put a comma after one, the next one, because it's a bit of additional information
Unknown speaker (JP8PSUNK) [175] [...] train,
(PS4HA) [176] the train in an hour's time.
Unknown speaker (JP8PSUNK) [177] no train [...]
(PS4HA) [178] Oh yes, as I, as I missed the train comma, I decided to catch the next one comma,
Unknown speaker (JP8PSUNK) [179] Yeah, but wouldn't that make it possible to take that out, and then it wouldn't make sense, 'cos it would say, as I missed the train which went in an hour's time ... if you put another comma, 'cos if you, if you put two commas you couldn't take it out.
(PS4HA) [180] Your main sentence,yo the main clause is, I decided to catch the next one.
[181] Additional information really, is, as I had missed the train comma, but it's, er, you've got to have a comma after train, because it's following that rule that was given in the top left hand corner, after I cashed my Giro ... comma, because of the derailment comma, it's it's that rule, it's the application of that rule.
Unknown speaker (JP8PSUNK) [182] Well, I think you need one after
(PS4HA) [183] After subordinate [...]
Unknown speaker (JP8PSUNK) [184] Do you need one after the next one, 'cos which sticks one, which [...]
(PS4HA) [185] Well, without getting too technical about it, I think you ought to have a comma after one because in the erm,y you know, the erm, blurb they gave you on the left hand side, that would apply what you've learnt on the left hand side.
Unknown speaker (JP8PSUNK) [186] I see, right.
(PS4HA) [187] But, ask me another day, when I've got a bit more time.
[188] There is a, an occasion when you wouldn't have a comma in front of that relative pronoun.
Unknown speaker (JP8PSUNK) [189] Yeah.
(PS4HA) [190] It depends whether you can take the information, or whether the information is the essential part ... and it's a bit of a fine line there, actually.
Unknown speaker (JP8PSUNK) [191] Yes, it is.
(PS4HA) [192] In number four, erm, I can't see anybody who hasn't done one, so erm, Martin, have the pleasure of doing this last one.
Unknown speaker (JP8PSUNK) [193] [...] first comma, sitting [...] never really understood [...] which means [...]
(PS4HA) [194] Right.
[195] Er, definitely after evidence, and definitely after [...] Right.
[196] I'm not going to go through the erm, passage at the bottom, but I'd like you to have a go at it and will go over it on Friday.
[197] [talk in background] Hang on, I haven't finished yet.
[198] Turn over.
[199] [turning over pages] [...] Today gallop very quickly through, people often use a comma instead of a full stop.
[200] Which is what a lot of [...] still do, Martin included.
[201] You use a comma to show a pause in a sentence, but a full stop shows that a sentence has finished.
[202] How do you know if you're at the end of a sentence.
[203] It's what you've written a a complete idea in itself, and does it have a main verb.
[204] If the answer to both questions is yes, then it's a sentence, put a full stop.
[205] Okay, look at this one.
[206] James.
[207] Yesterday, I bought a new video comma, it was great.
[208] Is wrong, because the comma is between two sentences.
[209] Each, it's not a phrase, it's each clause is a sentence, because it's a complete idea.
[210] Yesterday I bought a video.
[211] End of idea.
[212] Second idea.
[213] It was great, and therefore you need a full stop between the two.
[214] It's ... Stuart, instead of using a full stop between the two short sentences, you could use a conjunction to join them together, which would give you one sentence.
[215] Yesterday I bought a new video and it was great.
[216] Otherwise, you could use a pronoun as a joining word, so you could use a [...] pronoun and use which.
[217] Yesterday I bought a new video which was great.
[218] Okay.
[219] Normally, you would use which to join sentences about things and who or which to join sentences about people.
[220] [...] about conjunctions that you looked at on Friday.
[221] Okay.
[222] Some sentences, quick, quick, quick sort them out, please.
[223] Put the full stops in where
Unknown speaker (JP8PSUNK) [...]
(PS4HA) [224] [...] Martin [...]
Unknown speaker (JP8PSUNK) [225] Please return the cups to the counter full stop. [...]
(PS4HA) [226] [...] number four.
Unknown speaker (JP8PSUNK) [227] [...] comma [...]
(PS4HA) [228] [...] yes, Helen, sorry, Helen.
Unknown speaker (JP8PSUNK) [229] There's no point in talking about it full stop.
[230] All we do, all we do is argue full stop.
Unknown speaker (JP8PSUNK) [231] Can you put because.
(PS4HA) [232] Sorry.
Unknown speaker (JP8PSUNK) [233] Can you put because.
[234] Because all we do is argue.
(PS4HA) [235] Yes, it, if you're being simple about it.
[236] It just said put full stops where they are needed.
[237] Th th the the advancement on the exercise is to make them one sentence by using, yes, you could use a conjunction if you were going to make it into one sentence.
[238] Right then, last one, please.
Unknown speaker (JP8PSUNK) [239] Erm.
[240] [...] [laugh] Working in the theatre isn't all fun full stop.
[241] A lot of it's hard work.
(PS4HA) [242] It's
Unknown speaker (JP8PSUNK) [243] Ah.
(PS4HA) [244] Instead of, instead of using a full stop, you could use a conjunction.
[245] There is another possibility that they haven't mentioned because the book hasn't come on to deal with it yet, but you should know what it is.
Unknown speaker (JP8PSUNK) [246] Is it the colon.
(PS4HA) [247] You could use the semicolon.
[248] But what you mustn't use is the comma.
[249] Alright.
Unknown speaker (JP8PSUNK) [cough]
(PS4HA) [250] Okay, we'll continue this [...] [paper rustling] keep these sheets.
[251] Bring them to the next lesson.
[252] Thank you very much.